International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> en-US (IJRASB Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJRASB) Sun, 02 May 2021 15:29:14 +0530 OJS 60 Conservation of Millet Genetic Diversity in Eastern Ghat High Lands of Odisha <p>A total of 111 no. of Germplasm of Millets with code no’s have been assembled through formal process of Collaborative programme experimented from 2017-2020 Cropping season. The Germplasm has been evaluated for various Agronomic traits (biotic, abiotic, grain quality, etc.). The organisation, Watershed Support service &amp; Activities Network (Wassan) with Odisha Millet Mission Project holds 111 no. of Millet Germplasm collection with 108 no. of indigenous and 3 no. of rare types having information on important trait specific characters from the communities, community managed seed bank. The Present Paper highlights the assessment of Millet diversity assembled and conserved under Odisha Millet Mission Project &amp; thrust areas identified for future conservation and utilization.</p> Biswa Sankar Das Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 01 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Differentiated Instruction on Students’ Achievement in Geometry <p>This study determined the effect of differentiated instruction on students’ achievement in geometry. Two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha levels guided the study.&nbsp; The study employed pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study consisted of 1603 Senior Secondary two (SSII) students in Onitsha North Local Government of Anambra State and a sample of 224 SSII students were randomly selected from two co-education secondary schools from the population. Geometry Achievement Test (GAT) which contained 30 items was face and content validated by three experts. Reliability of the instrument was estimated at 0.78 using split-half reliability method.&nbsp; Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation,&nbsp;&nbsp; while the hypotheses were tested using z-test and t -test at 5% level of significance. The findings of the study showed that students that were taught geometry with differentiated instruction achieved better than those taught with conventional method. Both male and female students achieved high in geometry with the use of differentiated instruction. There is a statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught geometry with differentiated instruction and those taught with conventional method. Again, there is no statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught geometry with differentiated instruction. It was recommended among others that Mathematics teachers and educators should adopt the use of differentiated instruction while teaching and learning mathematics. Also curriculum developers should incorporate the use of differentiated instruction in the mathematics curriculum.</p> Anakpua Blessing C, Nzeakor Emmanuel C, Emefo Chinyere N Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 04 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 The Role of Chromatography in the Food Industry <p>The widespread usage of gas chromatography for food analysis makes it a value for scientific research. The typical chemical and food analysis tasks performed by Quall Expand use mostly quantitative or qualitative analysis of food constituents, poisons, pesticides, and waste chemicals. As well as the changes in food taste and packaging, and odour composition, and work with various extraction procedures such as using water and steam distillation, solvents. This review provides a general introduction to gas chromatography research and mentions the main uses of gas chromatography in food science in addition to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Trends from past and forecasted implementation practices are noted, evaluated, and possible trends in the present and possible future behavior of food industries. They predict that in food applications, which do not include the already gas chromatography, the fastest-developing research methods in the next decade would be used known as gas chromatography. The main three methods for quick gas chromatography are low-pressure gas chromatography or TOFOT gas chromatography/time-of-MS, which is only briefly defined, and the features of a gas chromatography are evaluated.</p> Spozhmai Osmani Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 04 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Performance of Cucumber in Early Summer Season on walk-in Structure <p>The field experiment was conducted to know profitability of different cucumber variety at agriculture farm of Girija Prasad koirala college of Agriculture and Research centre (GPCAR) of Purbanchal University, Gothgaun from March to July 2020. The experiment was conducted in Randomized complete block design with Walk–in structure with three treatments (GS16, Bhaktapur Local and Cucumber green long) and five replications. Each treatment consists of two plants in a replication. Sex ratio was seen on first thirty flowers after sowing of seed. All fruit harvested was considered for research purpose. The research revealed that fruit yield was poor in Bhaktapur local, satisfactory in GS16 and Cucumber green long. The fruit yield was higher in Cucumber green long followed by GS16. There was no satisfactory fruit yield in Bhaktapur local. Hence, it is concluded that thermo sensitive variety of cucumber Bhaktapur Local is not profitable to grow in summer season in plain area of eastern Nepal. Growing of cucumber green long for pickling quality is beneficial although slicing quality is better seen in GS16. The research hints that cucumber green long is a profitable agriculture commodity for the research area.</p> Krishna Dahal, Robin Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 12 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Screening of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Against Tur Pod Bug, Clavigralla gibbosa (Spinola) in Long Duration Pigeonpea Genotypes <p>The pigeonpea was infested with the number of insect pests at various stage of crop growth. Out of which the incidence pattern of <em>C. gibbosa </em>was studied. The result of the investigation pertaining to the “Screening of pigeonpea [<em>Cajanus cajan </em>(L.) Millsp.] against Tur Pod bug, <em>Clavigralla gibbosa</em> (Spinola) in long duration Pigeonpea genotypes” was carried out in 2018-19 at the Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. This insect was studied during reproductive phase of the crop during 2018-19. The very first presence of pod bug, [<em>C. gibbosa</em> (spinola)] was reported in all genotypes with a maximum population of (1.13 bug/plant) in the MAL-13 (AVT1) genotype in the 4th standard week pursued in the first week by AVT1-706 (1.06 bug/plant), AVT1-705 (1.03 bug/plant) in first week. Pod Bug population continued between the 4th standard Week of 2018-19. Throughout all genotypes, that 12th standard week Pod bug populations had been reported to also be especially high mostly during 12th standard week for nearly every genotypes. MAL-13 (AVT1) genotypes, accompanied by AVT1-704, would have the highest percentage of 10.55 bugs/plant, as well as 9.62 bugs/plant populations. In genotypes AVT1-707 (4.96 bug/plant), the lowest population of pod bugs was found. AVT2 - 903 (5.02 bug/plant), and AVT1-703 (5.17 bugs/plant) during the 10th standard week. The mean pod bug population was substantially different in different genotypes and ranged from AVT1-708 (1.72 bugs/plant) to MAL 13(AVT1) (3.77 bugs/plant). . Its degree of damage in cultivar AVT2-904 ranged from 27.33% to 51.00% in cultivar AVT1-703.&nbsp; The grain loss in genotype AVT2-904 ranged from 12.68% to 30.52% in genotype AVT2-907.</p> Rohit Sharma, Dr. Ram Keval Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Husband Cut His Ailing Wife's Throat in 'Act of Love': First Reported Case in Sri Lanka <p>Introduction: Infliction of painless death in a patient suffering from severe pain or distress due to incurable terminal illness by another person called as mercy killing or euthanasia. If this happened in a hospital with the consent in a country, where euthanasia is legalized there is nothing to be discussed. Absence of deceased account related to the incident and the so-called history of “mercy killing” opens up much discussion.</p> <p>Case Report: A 63-year-old married woman was found dead with a cut injury from which bled a lot onto her bed in an early morning with a sharp knife at the scene. History revealed that she had sustained cervical spinal cord injury upon accidental fall around 5 months ago confining her to bed with quadriplegia and much pain. The pain and the hardships that she was facing were too distressing and were unbearable to the husband who loved the wife very much. The husband had planned himself to get suicide after killing his wife with the pure intention of ending of her suffering. As a result, husband slashed her neck with a sharp knife. There after he tried to commit suicide with cut throat and hanging but both methods were failed. At the autopsy, the clothes showed flashed blood on the upper part of the blouse. A deep, horizontally placed, incised neck injury was found on the front and right side of middle third of the neck. Death was opined as due to exsanguinous bleeding resulting from deep cut of the neck produced by a sharp weapon. Upon the medico-legal examination of the alleged husband with superficial cut injuries at the neck and head and a ligature mark, confessed that he killed her wife solely because of the incurable suffering.</p> <p>Conclusion: The important fact here to be considered is the intention of the alleged assailant i.e. actual case of mercy killing, or a malicious act or he was insane, depressed, etc. It needs psychological assessment of assailant by Forensic Psychiatrist.&nbsp; Among many other facts this case highlights the consideration of the law related to euthanasia in Sri Lanka along with insurance schemes and counseling schemes.</p> Raveendran Sathasivam; Dassanayakke PB; Dammika Aryarathna Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 20 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Phytohormones as Potential Anticancer Agents <p>The global burden of cancer is projected to have more than doubled over the next two decades, raising the prospect of a significant investment in health systems, thus posing a real medical problem. The increasing number of people with cancer highlights the need for more cancer prevention efforts. An established history exists for plant-derived compounds as effective anticancer agents. More recently, several phytohormones have been assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth and survival of human cancer cell lines. Phytohormones or plant hormones are chemical messengers responsible for harmonizing various cellular activities that revolves around growth, development, and stress-response. The aim of this literature review article is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the several naturally occurring phytohormones which have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of variety of different type of cancers.</p> Ashmit Gill, Somi Patranabis Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 20 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Calotropis procera (Arka): A Tribal Herb of Utmost Significance <p>Nature has gifted humans a vast variety of medicinal plants, which are the rich source of bioactive compounds. <em>Calotropis procera</em> is an important medicinal plant that belongs to the family <em>asclepiadaceae.</em> It is commonly known as madar and milkweed plant in english and arka in hindi. It is mostly found in the tropics of asia and africa. <em>Calotropis procera</em> is a highly valued plant in the folk medication system. Each part of the plant is richly endowed with diverse nature of phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, saponins, terpenes, and flavonoids, etc. These phytochemicals are significantly associated with various therapeutic and pharmacological properties such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, antifertility, anti-diarrheal, and spasmolytic. In this review article, the therapeutic and pharmacological value of this important plant has been summarized along with its utilization in the folklore and ayurvedic medicinal system.</p> Isha Kumari, Gitika Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 27 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Systematic Review on Drug Delivery Systems Based on Their Mechanism of Drug Release and Their Applications <p>Oral drug delivery is the most commonly used and preferred route of delivery of pharmaceuticals which has been successfully treating wide number of diseases. The advantages of this method of delivery are patient friendly, cost effective, established delivery system, noninvasiveness and convenient, and In the pharmaceutical field it is the most favored drug delivery system. Oral drug delivery systems along with other effective delivery system types that are effective and promising are discussed in this paper based on the mechanism of drug release.</p> Subhash Chandra Das, Amit Prakash Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 27 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Groundwater Problems Caused By Irrigation with Sewage Effluent <p>Sewage effluent water is consistently used for the agricultural irrigation in rural and urban region farms. The spread of the potential infectious diseases is the major concern for farm workers and also for city inhabitant when they get exposed to these effluents. They also will affect those people consuming crops developed using effluent water irrigation system, particularly when the farm produce is consumed raw by people or otherwise, the farm yield is brought in that raw condition into the kitchen. Only way of preventing is by making adequate measures to disinfect the effluent. Moreover, the effluent water must meet all the conditions of usual irrigation water parameter needs such as trace elements, sodium adsorption ratio, salt content, and so on. Regrettably, no proper interest taken and awareness paid to curtail sewage irrigation long-term effects on principal groundwater.</p> <p>The irrigation water is mostly applied during the dry climatic conditions that evaporates quickly. Whereas, the non-biodegradable chemical concentration of the drained water and deep-percolated water goes down to join the groundwater, which may remain at a higher level than the effluent water itself. There are various chemicals included in such effluent water, comprising of various salts, potential pesticide residues, nitrates, and they are usually expected in the farming and irrigated farming. However, the chemicals in the sewage, such as pharmaceuticals, organic, synthetic compounds, by-products of disinfection, and pharmaceutical active endocrine disruptor, chemicals, Fumic acids are mainly known to&nbsp; be the main disinfection precursor by-products. They are formed as soon as the drainage water joins the drinking-water, which gets chlorinated subsequently. Therefore, the groundwater right under the sewage-irrigated regions finally can become completely unfit for human consumption and drinking. The is the main issue that is raising questions of its accountability and burden, when the sewage water irrigated, joins the groundwater.</p> Dr. Osama Asanousi Lamma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Characterization and Cellulase Production Activity of different Aspergillus Sp. Isolated from “Puri, Odisha” Marine Fungal Strains <p>Cellulose undergoes hydrolysis utilizing chemicals to deliver glucose, which might be utilized for the production of ethanol, organic acids, and various chemicals. Cellulases are a collection of hydrolytic catalysts that can hydrolyze the most plentiful natural polymer for example cellulose into smaller sugar components including glucose subunits. Cellulase is overpriced and contributes simply half to the general expense of hydrolysis because of the low explicit activity. This enzyme has enormous potential in industries and its use in food, beverages, textile, laundry, paper, and mash industries, and so forth. Consequently, there has been a lot of examination focused on new microorganisms producing cellulose enzymes with higher specific activities and greater efficiency. Currently, work is pointed toward screening and disconnecting cellulolytic growths from the marine samples gathered from the Bay of Bengal, Puri coast, Odisha. All out 7 fungi were isolated from these dirt examples, out of which 2 fungi were portraying the extensive cellulase activity. The fungal isolate, for example, MWF-1 andMSF-6 isolated from water silt respectively were recognized to show the most extreme zone of hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose. The cellulase activity was assayed by Carboxymethylcellulose "CMCase" (endoglucanase) measure.</p> Mr. Utkalendu Suvendusekhar Samantaray, Samuka Sahu Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Consumption of Honey in Wa Municipality, Upper West Region Ghana <p>Honey commonly referred to as ‘liquid gold’’ is a sweet, thick liquid natural food produced by honeybees through secretions of living plants that transform and combine with specific substances of their own, and leave it in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Honey is spoken of by all religious books, and accepted by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern as very medicinal and nutritious food.&nbsp; The paper explored the source, brand and packaging of honey sold, the quality features of honey consumers look out for during purchase, average consumption (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) of honey, health and nutritional benefits of honey and the concerns consumers have about honey purchased for consumption.</p> <p>A consumer survey in peri-urban and urban communities in Wa Municipality was carried out. A total number of 400 consumers were accidentally sampled and consented for the study after verifying consumer’s eligibility from a check list.</p> <p>The study found out that, consumption of honey was common among urban and peri-urban dwellers thereby creates a business opportunity for producers, processors and vendors, Two major sources of honey were identified, wild and apiary honey. The brands identified were also the local and external honeys. Honey in the Municipality is packaged and sold in plastic/rubber bottle, recycled drinking water bottle and beer bottles for consumers. Honey consumers in the Wa municipality commonly use four quality characteristics (flavor, taste, color and thickness) in buying honey for use. They believe that these physical characteristics are all-inclusive in determining the quality of honey and stretches an upright conclusion of honey quality.&nbsp; The overall daily average quantity of honey consumed per person in Wa Municipality was calculated at 1.7 ml, weekly 11.9ml, monthly 47.6ml and yearly 571.2ml. In terms of access point of honey, consumers buy honey from processors, distributers and vendors. Majority of the consumers buy honey in recycled packaging materials. Additions of water, sugar and melted mattresses as well as grave honey are the adulteration perceptions raised by consumers.</p> Cornelius K.A. Pienaah, Bruno Berewono, Mahama Dangana, Joseph Angkyelaa, Daniel Gandiibu Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Anatomical Study of Some Species of the Brassicaceae Family <p>Study complete in postgraduate laboratories at the College of Science, Department of Biology, University of Kufa.</p> <p>The anatomical study revealed a variation in the formation of complex cells and epidermal cells, where they differed in their shapes and were irregular with wavy ridges and on the axial surfaces in R. sativusvar red L. and R. sativuslongipinntus L. Their walls were weak jagged in only R. raphenstrum. Also, the stomata were located on both sides of the leaf blade, and the upper epidermis contained fewer stomata compared to the lower epidermis.</p> Ahmed Hassan Kadhim, Ahmed Abies Moter Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Comparative Study of School Parent Satisfaction Predictors using different Classifiers <p>Educational data mining (EDM) is applied on voluminous student information for obtaining some useful information. This research focuses on the parents' satisfaction based on their executed study. Instead of focusing only from the educational institutions, it is also required to put concentration to the parents’ side. Depending on the factors such as how the student carries out their study, their examination result and many more, parental satisfaction is predicted. For carrying out the analysis of these parameters, machine learning methods are implemented and applied to the educational dataset. Several machine learning models such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN), Decision Tree classifiers, and Multi-layer Perceptron classifier (MLP) are constructed for predicting parental satisfaction level. Comparative analysis shows the highest accuracy of 92% executed by the SVM model. Executing this predictive modeling will assist the parents to guide and motivate their children towards areas that demand improvement.</p> Saronyo Lal Mukherjee, Shawni Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 The Effect of Purification Units for Drinking Water Spread in Al-Alam and Al-Bu Ajil on Heavy Metals <p>The current study was carried out on the treatment and treatment units located in the district of Al-Alam and the village of Al-Bu Ajil, which are located near the Tigris River, with two stations for each region for the period from September 2020 to February 2021, as two samples were collected for each treatment unit by a sample before treatment and a sample after treatment. Iron values ​​ranged between (0-0.9) mg / liter before and after treatment, and they ranged between (0-0.05) mg / liter, and zinc values ​​were recorded values ​​ranging between (0-0.9) mg / liter. Before treatment and after treatment, it ranged between (0-0.05) mg / liter, while the aluminum values ​​were relatively few, as values ​​ranged between (0.03_0) mg / liter. As for the values ​​after treatment, they were (0) mg / liter. Cadmium values ​​were between (0,1_0) mg / liter. In the samples after treatment also, all values ​​were (0) mg / liter in all stations, and the nickel values ​​ranged between (0,9_0) mg / liter in the samples before treatment and after treatment. The values ​​were all (0) mg / liter in both stations, and the copper values ​​were very low in the mentioned areas, as values ​​ranged between (0.1_0) mg / liter before treatment and after treatment, the values ​​were (0) mg / liter. In both stations, the purification plants proved their high efficiency in filtering water from heavy elements, and the samples after treatment were in conformity with the Iraqi standards for drinking water. It is worth noting that the purification plants in the areas of Al-Alam and Al-Bu Ajil need a constant monthly maintenance and a replacement process for the filters as they draw their water from wells.</p> Amjad Abdel-Latif Ahmed Alluhaiby, Saadat Mustafa, Shaima Fateh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Dopamine, a Human Love Factor, on the Physio-Chemical Properties of Filamentous Green Alga: Spirogyra <p>Dopamine is a hormone &amp; neurotransmitter, occurring in wide verities of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In chemical structure, it is a phenylethylamine. Dopamine is commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing the feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate a process to perform certain activities. It is released (particularly in area such as nucleus accbens and ventral tegmental area) by naturally rewarding experiences such as food sex etc. Since conjugating is such type of activity i.e. it is also manifested in lower group of filamentous algae, it was thought that how these groups of algae respond to dopamine. The effect of dopamine was studied on the physico-chemical properties of <em>Spirogyra</em> and it was observed that the changing the colour to yellow is accomplished by the formation of new compounds (??) needs further investigation.</p> Aishwarya Khamari, Akshya K. Mishra, Samir K. Bhoi, Monika Khamari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 04 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Cosmetics Commonly Sold in Katsina Markets and Their Human Health Risk <p>Cosmetic product protection is a serious concern because of the presence of heavy metals. Accumulation of these metals affect human body over a time.&nbsp; The study was aimed at assessing the levels of some toxic metals in different cosmetic products sold at different shops and markets in Katsina metropolis. The cosmetic items included nine face powder and nine lipsticks. The cosmetics were digested and analyzed for heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Risk of this metals to the consumer was determine using systematic exposure dosage (SED), margin of safety (MoS), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The range of the concentration in face powder was 0.007-0.624±0.003-1.508 mg/kg. The concentration ranges in lipsticks was 0.012-0.036 ± 0.009-0.036 mg/kg. Lead has the highest concentration in face powder and chromium has the highest concentration range in lipstick, while cadmiun has the least concentration in both face powders and lipsticks. The concentration of all the heavy metals are below permissible limit. The Margin of Safety (MoS) values calculated for different metals were higher than the established safe standard by WHO except for Cr in face powders. The obtained SED values are much lower than PTDI. HQ values were within permissible limit indicating low risk of detrimental effect. HI value is greater than one in face powder and less than one in lipsticks. The carcinogenic risk (CR) estimated are within permissible limit except for Cd.</p> Surajo I.T., Haruna A., Kusharki H.M., Ruma M.M., Salisu A. Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 04 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Slaughter slab Survey of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Lesions in Slaughtered Cattle in Chavuma Districts, Northwestern Province, Zambia <p><em>Objective:</em> To establish and estimate prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), using slaughter slabante-mortem examination and postmortem lesions as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Chavuma, Northwestern province, Zambia.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Between August and December 2020, 364 cattle were slaughtered at six slaughter slabs in Chavuma district (Good Hope, Likola Levy, Supplies of Chavuma Boarding school, Formula Butchery, Grace of God, Never Lose Hope).The affected cattle had noisy breathing, nasal discharge and coughing. In addition, to yellow fluid in the chest cavity and lungs coated in yellowish substance lung lesions. This was according to the ante-mortem and postmortem reports.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Hundred and five (28.8%) of the slaughtered cattle had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP. When compared to other slaughter slabs, the point prevalence of positive CBPP postmortem lesions was higher at Grace of God slaughter slab (P&lt;0.05). Labored breathing (78%), dry cough (70%), and mucopurulent nasal discharge were the most common pneumonic signs (60%). The gross characteristic of CBPP postmortem lesions included the following; L/lung (45%), R/lung (28%), Both/lung (30%), P/adhesion (90%), L/pinkish (65%), Sequestra (20%) and Yellow fluid (60%). However, the frequently encountered was P/adhesion (90%), and pinkish lung (65%).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> CBPP remains an issue in Chavuma district, and possibly Northwestern province as a whole, according to the findings of this study. Furthermore, since movement control is difficult in Chavuma district and herds are not restricted, testing and slaughter, even when combined with vaccination, may not be sufficient to control the disease. In the fight against disease, communities play a crucial role. To be effective, any government CBPP control systems must be thoroughly communicated to livestock farmers so that they are fully engaged, recognize the long-term benefits, and are willing to comply. Apart from that, a continued monitoring program is recommended, which involves regular checks of all cattle carcasses at the slaughter slab and subsequent epidemiological analysis of suspicious cases. As a result, concerted measures to eliminate the disease should be introduced as soon as possible, including improved cattle movement monitoring, strengthened epidemio-surveillance networks, and mass vaccination.</p> Kachinda Wezi, Chalilunda Brian, Mulunda Mwanza, Bright Chomwa, Mufuzi Reagan, Chinyama Mazawu, Banda Peter, Geoffrey Muuka Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 05 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Biosurfactants from Soil Microorganisms as a Possible Detergent Replacement <p>Biosurfactants belong to the amphiphilic molecules category and are formed by a range of microorganisms. Similar to chemical surfactants, properties of Biosurfactants that make them unique include minimizing the surface and interfacial tensions. Biosurfactants also have Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) in organic and aqueous solutions. Recent studies confirm the toxic nature of chemically synthesized surfactants and the advantages of biosurfactants prove their potential than commercially artificial counterparts. Rhamnolipids are well-characterized and promising compounds among other biosurfactants. In this study, biosurfactants producing microorganisms were isolated from the soil. The isolated microorganism was identified with different biochemical tests and found to be <em>Pseudomonas </em><em>aeruginosa</em>. 16s rRNA locus was utilized for DNA bar-coding. Production of biosurfactants was done at shake flask level and 5L lab-scale fermenter using minimal media optimized for high yield. Cell-free supernatant was purified using LLE and biosurfactants characterization was performed on HPTLC and HPLC using standard Rhamnolipids. The isolated biosurfactants were tested to remove common stains and were found effective. This shows the potential of biosurfactants as a Laundry detergent.</p> Yogesh Suryawanshi, Gaganjyot Kaur, Ajay Mandavkar, Bhupesh Jena Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 08 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Multinomial Logistic Regression of Contraceptive’s Determinants and Unmet Need for Family Planning among Currently Married Women in India <p>Background: India is the first nation of the world to formulate the national family welfare programme in 1952 with the objective of reducing the birth rate for population stabilization. More than 100 million women in less developed countries or about 17% of all married women would prefer to avoid pregnancy but are not using any form of family planning. Despite the government's many efforts, the unmet need for family planning in India is still 12.8%. The present study is aimed to assess prevalence of the unmet need for family planning, its determinants, and to analyze the relationship between use contraceptive method and unmet need for family planning among Currently Married Women in India.&nbsp;Materials and Methods:&nbsp;The present study uses139,278 currently married women from urban residence selected from the fourth round of national family health survey conducted during 2015-2016 in the country. Descriptive and multivariate analysis have been used to study the prevalence of unmet need for family planning and to examine the relationship between contraceptive method with its determinants among currently married women in India. Results:&nbsp;Study shows that total unmet need for family planning are 12% (i.e. 5% for spacing and 7% for limiting) among currently married women. Women of aged 15-19 are 21% unmet need for contraception in which 19% and 2% unmet need for spacing and for limiting respectively. Women with primary and higher educated are 13% and 32% more likely to choose modern and traditional method respectively over non-use compared to women having no education. Conclusion:&nbsp;Improved access to family planning services, better education, improved standard of living, and higher exposure to mass media can significantly decrease the unmet need of family planning.</p> Ayub Khan, Hari Shankar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 08 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Diversity Assessment of Major Insect Orders in Parvati Aranga Bird Sanctuary District Gonda, Uttar Pradesh, India <p>An assessment study was conducted on the abundance and diversity of insect species in Parvati Aranga Bird Sanctuary District Gonda, Uttar Pradesh. The present study was aimed to determine the species richness, dominance and evenness of insect fauna from study area. The assessment was carried out during the month of November 2020 to April 2021. A total number of 296 insects from 156 species, 31 families and 5 Order were recorded. This assessment shows that Coleoptera (33.97%) was most dominant order and followed by Lepidoptera (25.64%), Orthoptera (14.74%), Diptera (14.74%) and Hymenoptera (10.26%) according to total number of species. A number of statistical indices were used to determine the Dominance, Richness, Evenness and Diversity. The study supposed to the first report of insect diversity in study is and becomes useful information on those aspects to be documented for future references.</p> Balwant Singh, Sakshi Tripathi, Jaya Devi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity and ROS Production Profile among Clarias batrachus, Cirrhinus reba, Channa punctatus (Freshwater Species) <p>Fish account fifty percent of entire vertebrates present on the planet. They can be found practically in every possible aquatic habitats; from the 39,900 species of vertebrates, 21,723 are fishes with 8,411 being freshwater species while 11,650 being marine. There are about 2,500 species of fishes are present in India out of which 930 of them living in freshwater and 1,570 in the ocean. So, in the present study, we collected three fresh water fish’s i.e. <em>Clarias batrachus, Cirrhinus reba, Channa punctatus </em>from the river Mahanadi. Information on the comparative account of antioxidant protection in these fishes from Mahanadi river is relatively scanty. As a result, the purpose of this research was to explore the proximate composition of the three popularly used Fresh water fish species from the river Mahanadi. The result of the present study involved an integrated study of muscle tissue of <em>C. batrachus, C. reba </em>and <em>C. punctatus </em>which shows alteration in lipid per oxidation, hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant defence system. Results of this investigation suggest that <em>C. reba </em>were considered as a highly proteinaceous fish for which they are widely used in food industries. Still, more research work is required to explore the nutritional value of various types of fish muscles and their products.</p> Mr. Utkalendu suvendusekhar Samantaray, Ms. Arpita Patro Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrients and Biochemical Evaluation in Pomfret Fish (Pampus argenteus) During Frozen Storage <p>Marine fish are well-known for being a high-quality protein source having high concentration of essential amino acids.&nbsp; It has high concentration of mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids, which may aid in the optimization of lipid profiles and the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of this study was to estimate the nutritional and biochemical status of raw sea fish <em>Pampus argenteus</em> after 30 days of frozen storage at -20<sup>0</sup>C with 15-day intervals. Nutrient study showed a decrease in protein and lipid content. The changes of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized lipid products were estimated in the muscle tissue during fresh and storage condition. Results indicate that during storage the oxidative stress increased. An antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, smutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) measurement was determined. The increased amount of oxidative stress during fish storage is shown by the differential activity of antioxidant enzymes. The amount of protein in fish varies slightly between species and even within species. Fish is high in protein, vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for brain development (Spencer et al., 1971; Jacylin et al., 2010). A well-balanced diet consists variety of fish that can help in children's growth and development as well as their heart health (Jinadasa, 2014).</p> Mr. Utkalendu suvendusekhar Samantaray, Ms. Swagatika Tripathy Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530