International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> en-US (IJRASB Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJRASB) Tue, 02 Mar 2021 07:01:18 +0530 OJS 60 Finite Integral Involving the Modified Generalized Aleph-Function of Two Variables and Elliptic Integral of First Species I <p>In the present paper, we evaluate the general finite integral involving the elliptic integrals of first species and the generalized modified Aleph- function of two variables. At the end, we shall see several corollaries and remarks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Frédéric Ayant, Prvindra Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Comprehensive Review of Molecular Biology and Genetics of Cataract <p>Cataract is one of the oldest diseases. Even in the 21st century, the disease is often neglected and treated as an insignificant threat. Although the facts and figures account for the opposite, it is found that globally cataract holds for more than 50% of blindness. Cataract is also one of the first five immediate focus areas of a global Initiative called 'Vision 2020', which intends to eradicate preventable blindness by 2020. The disease is termed as multifactorial; has various extrinsic environmental and intrinsic cell biology factors determining its progress. Over the years, enormous progress has been made towards cataract including the identification of its risk factors. Yet the current scientific knowledge is far from developing a proven preventive or pharmacological strategy for it. The surgical method has been the only way to cure cataract by far. In this paper, we tried to give a comprehensive bird eye view for the disease; we have (a) reviewed briefly the recent progress in delineating the molecular biology and risk factors of cataract (b) delved into genetics of the cataract and overviewed crucial gene families related to the disease identified through single-gene mutations and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS).&nbsp;</p> Harshal Wasnik, Rishi Gandhi, Niraj Patil, Rajendra Behera, Anand Golait, Tushar Patel, Tirthajit Baruah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Miscanthus Sinensis (Silver Grass) Leaf Extract <p>In materials physics, “green” synthesis has gained attention as a sustainable, reliable and eco-friendly protocol for synthesizing a wide range of nanomaterials including metal/metal oxides nanomaterials, bioinspired, and hybridmaterials. In the past numerous years, the utilization of synthetic concoctions and physical strategies were in mould; however, the acknowledgment of their toxic impacts on human well-being and condition influenced serious worldview for the researcher. Since, green synthesis is the best option to option to opt for the synthesis of nanoparticle, therefore the nanoparticles were synthesized by using aqueous extract of Miscanthus Sinensis (Silver grass) and metal ions (such as Copper Oxide). Copper was of particular interest due to its distinctive physical and chemical properties. Miscanthus Sinensis leaf extract was selected as it is of high medicinal value and it does not require any sample preparation and hence is cost- effective. The fixed ratio of plant extract and copper ions were mixed and kept at room temperature for reduction. The colour change from Green to black confirmed the formation of nanoparticles. Further, the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by standard Physio-chemical techniques like DLS, UV-VIS, AAS and zeta potential.</p> Tausif, Pooja Kumari, Dr. N. Chandra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 05 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Review Article: Categorization, Advancement and Obstacles of Genetic factors and types of Spinal Muscular Degeneration <p>SMA (Spinal muscular atrophies) are category of hereditary inflammation in the funiculars and lower brain stem, tissue fatigue, and degeneration characterized by motor neuron failure. The analytic and genetic phenotypes incorporate a diverse continuum distinguished depending on age of onset, tissue participation arrangement, and inheritance arrangement. Rapid advancements in genetic science have expedite the discovery of causative genes over the past few years, and provide significant access in awareness the biochemical and neurological basis of Spinal muscular atrophies and insights into the motor neurons' selective deficiency. Popular path physiological topics include Ribonucleic Acid metabolism and splicing abnormalities, axonal transmission, and motor neurons' advancement and communication. These also collectively revealed possible innovative prevention methods and comprehensive attempts are what benefits does the company offer? Although a range of promising therapeutic therapies for Spinal muscular atrophies is emerging, it is essential to identify therapeutic windows and establish responsive and appropriate biomarkers to promote future analytic trial success. This research offers a description of Spinal muscular atrophies' logical manifestations and genetics. It discusses recent advancements in learning—mechanisms for the pathogenesis of inflammation and new treatment methods.</p> Marwa Abbas Abdulrazzak Kubba Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Study Correlation between Some Immune Markers in Patients with Lichen Planus: Review Article <p>Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a "genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients. The aim of this study: Study correlation between some immune markers in patients with lichen planus.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>'Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral Lichen planus (OLP), were included in the sample of this report.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-1protein Immunohistochemistry</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The marker p53 expression is high in the patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed markersyndecan-1 protein is less than marker p53.</p> Nagham H. Ali, Amir A. Majeed Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 09 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Review on Effect of Climatic Zones on the Milk Production of Holstein Friesian and Jersey Cows <p>Dairy farming is emerging as commercial enterprise and milk as the part of dietary food but the milk productivity of the cattle varies with the variation in climatic factors. So, breed selection plays imperative role on maintaining productivity and adoptability in different environments. Holstein Friesian and Jersey being the temperate breeds with high milk producing capacities could not perform well on the tropical and sub-tropical region. With proper feeding, Holstein has higher milk yield and low-fat percentage than Jersey. Milk yield varies by 2.58% in Holstein and 2.09% in Jersey cow with the change in climatic factors (minimum temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). In hot areas, both breeds suffer from heat stress showing low feed intake, higher body and rectal temperature, high respiration rates and high heart beats. Holstein has high increase than Jersey in rectal temperature and heart beat by 0.55<sup>0</sup>C and 15.4 inhalations/min respectively which shows Jersey are more heat tolerant than Holstein. It is due to the larger heat dissipating area, short and light hair, lighter body coat and thin fat. Heat stress can be managed by providing shade, nutritious feed and genetic improvements. As the climate change is emerging, it can affect cattle in tropical regions even more in near future. To overcome this future challenge, further research and study must be done for the proper management of Holstein and Jersey in stress condition and heat tolerance breed must be developed by genetic improvement.</p> Prabha Adhikari, Prativa Sharma, Surya Sharma Bhatta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Pasteurized Low Acidic Indigenous Beverages Produced in Northern Cameroon on Germination of Bacillus and Geobacillus Spores Species <p>The present study aimed to investigate the influence of three commercially available traditional acidic beverages on spore germination. “Foléré”, red “té” and white “mpedli” sorghum beers have been produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimented producers, and pH of samples were adjusted at 2.01, 2.63 and 2.8 respectively, then they were pasteurized. The samples produced were tested on four spore-forming bacteria (<em>Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megapterium, Bacillus subtilis</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Geobacillus stearothermophilus</em>) and germination was assessed both on culture plate media and by loss of optical density (OD) methods. The results obtained showed that “foléré” at pH 2.01, and both indigenous sorghum red beer at pH 2.63 and white beer at pH 2.8 were effective on spore germination, and efficacy significantly increase (p &lt; 0.05) with the incubation time. The presence of alcohol in the pasteurized white (2.43 %) and red (4.7 %) sorghum beers has significantly (p &lt; 0.05) improved the anti-germinating activity compared to the non-alcoholic “foléré” beverage. The sensitivity of <em>B. cereus&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>B. subtilis&nbsp;</em>was positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.880; p &lt; 0.01) likewise the sensitivity of <em>B. megapterium&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>G. stearothermophilus</em>&nbsp;(r = 0.725; p &lt; 0.05), and the activity of traditional white and red sorghum beers was found to be very significant (p &lt; 0.05) for each couple respectively. The loss of OD showed an inhibitory effect of indigenous beverages germination and exhibited a microcycle on all tested spore-forming bacteria. It was concluded that if the good hygiene and manufacturing practices were applied for production of indigenous beverages, they might easily be used as natural preservatives and for prevention of gastroenteritis induced by germination and outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria like&nbsp;<em>B. cereus</em>.</p> James Ronald Bayoï, François-Xavier Etoa Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Investigation of Effective Factors on Calving Interval of Cows in Faryab Province <p>This research was conducted to investigate the effects of factors (Identification of female cows, timely insemination of identified begging cows, diseases related to the reproductive system and nutrition) on the calving interval of dairy cows in Faryab province. Whereas, the long interval between two deliveries due to the identification of female cows, the increase in the number of inseminations (due to the failure of previous insemination), poor nutritional management and genital infections cause a long interval between calving to retrieval of cows. In that case, it will significantly reduce milk production and livestock income, because calving interval is one of the most important indicators of reproduction and economic characteristics of dairy cows, which is the interval between two calving intervals. Under the best of circumstances, one cow gives birth to only one calf per year. Calves born are important from both the point of view of meat production and replacement of old and low-producing cows. Identifying the effective factors and their effects on the calving interval between dairy cows and preventing the economic losses of dairy farmers due to increasing the calving interval between calves are the general purpose of this research. In this research, Andkhoy, Qurghan and other Faryab districts were randomly selected from three villages in each district and 10 owners from each village, which included three districts, 9 villages and nine livestock, respectively. The results of the present research showed that the interval between calving of dairy cows in the research area was due to the untimely identification of female cows by herders, increasing the number of inseminations due to the failure of previous inseminations of diseases related to the reproductive system and inadequate nutrition. The average time after delivery for the uterus to return to its previous state was 465 days.</p> Saifullah Saadat Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Induction of Embryogenesis in the Culture of Isolated Microspores of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) haploids and doubled haploids are widely used in breeding, the investigations of a combinative variability and its stabilization in homozygotes. In four domestic varieties of winter wheats (Moskovskaya 56, Moskovskaya 39, Galina, Nemchinovskaya 24) and three domestic varieties of spring wheats (Ester, MIS, Amir). With spring wheat variety Falat as a control, the efficacy of embryogenesis in isolated microspores was tested using standard protocol for induction of direct embryo formation in the isolated microspore culture. In all winter varieties there was shown a low frequency of cytoplasmic strands, which are typical for the embryogenic microspores, whereas in the spring varieties it was high. After 4 days cultivation in the medium used for induction, the microspore viability decreased in winter varieties. and another 10 days later the Viable cells were not observed. The spring varieties developed the multicellular structures, which could produce embryos. The reference variety Falat produced 28 % of proembryoids, able mostly to further embryonic formation. Basing on these results, the protocol for inducing direct embryogenesis in wheat microspores was modified, including maltose concentration in medium, the conditions of spikelet heat treatment, the number of ovaries and time when they were added to the culture, the combination and concentration of hormones in the media for induction and cultivation.</p> Sayed Mohammad Naeim Oighun Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 In Silico Identification of Active Phytochemicals against COVID-19 by Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Through Molecular Docking: A Drug Repurposing Approach <p>The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become one of the most significant pandemics in modern human history, affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. Currently, only a few fda-approved drugs have suggested fighting the infection, in the absence of a specific antiviral treatment. Thus, repurposing the presently available drugs or using plant-based bioactive compounds can be the fastest possible solution. In this study, the computational methodology of molecular docking techniques was performed to screen and identify the viable potent inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from a library of 200 active phytochemicals, based on their highest binding affinity towards the target protein. Later, the binding affinities of these phytochemicals were compared with that of the fda-approved drug fluvoxamine, which is currently in use against the mild COVID-19 patients. Out of these, 86 phytochemicals that exhibited better binding energy of value ≤-7.00kcal/mol, is selected for adme (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis and drug likeliness studies to check the feasibility of these compounds. Wherein, 79 out of 86 phytochemicals showed a better theoretical affinity with sufficiently bearable adme properties. Thus, they can be the lead molecule for further investigation and validation processes towards developing natural inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</p> Rathan Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Inhibition of HepG-2 Cells (Liver Cancer Cell Line) Viability by 3-Hydroxypyridine-2-Carboxaldehyde N(4)-Methylthiosemicarbazone <p>Thiosemicarbazone have the antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer effects. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited the cell viability of HepG-2 cells by CV assay in a concentration dependent manner (control, 1μM, 3μM, 10μM, 30μM, and 100μM) with IC50 value of 9.587622μM. Further colony formation assay demonstrated that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibits colony number and size of HepG-2. Wound healing assay exhibited that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit the migration of HepG-2 cells. DAPI staining showed that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited proliferation of HepG-2 cells in 30μM and 100μM concentrations respectively. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited VEGF, p38 alpha, C-JUN, BECN-1, ERK, NF-KB, in HepG-2 cells. We found that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit proliferation of HepG-2 cells by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway, 3-OH-Me-TSC can be developed as future chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma after the evaluation of this compounds in more cancer cells an <em>in vivo </em>model.</p> Edrees Khan Rahmatzada, Prof. Paras Nath Yadav, Dr. Yuba Raj Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 24 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Daruharidra (Berberis aristata): Review based upon its Ayurvedic Properties <p><em>Berberis aristata</em> is also known as daruharidra which is a famous plant and used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani, Chinese and Allopathy for a very long time. It is a spinous, hard, yellowish herb belongs to the family <em>Berberidaceae.</em> The plant is distributed in sub- Himalayan regions, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and hilly areas of Nepal. It played a significant role as an herbal remedy for more than 2500 years. It was used by ancient Egyptians to anticipate plague disease. European herbalists used this plant to treat liver and gall bladder disorders during the early middle ages. Russian therapists used <em>B. aristata</em> plant to cure inflammation, high blood pressure and abnormal menstrual cycle. It is used as a bitter tonic, stomachic, cholagogue, antiperiodic and alternative by American Indians to cure intermittent fever, neuralgia and menorrhagia. In the traditional medicinal system, the plant is used to treat skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhea, eye problem inflammation and wound healing. Fruit of the plant is a rich source of Vitamin C. The main active constituent of the plant is Berberine found mainly in its roots.&nbsp; The most important formulation of this plant is 'Rashut' that is acts as a tonic as well as blood purifier and also used to treat ulcer and ophthalmic diseases. Reported clinical and experimental studies showed that the plant possesses various pharmacological properties like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and cardiotonic activity.&nbsp;</p> Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Madhusudan S., Gitika Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 24 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluating the 10th Grade English Coursebook Currently in Use in Afghanistan <p>In recent years, the use of (or lack of) of English textbooks in teaching English as a second/foreign language classrooms has become an issue of great debate among English teachers. Regarding the critical role of teaching materials in second language instruction, this study was an attempt to evaluate the English Coursebook taught at the 10<sup>th</sup> grade in Afghan schools from the perspectives of both teachers and students. To this end, 30 Afghan teachers of English were asked to fill out a piloted, Likert-scale questionnaire whose items tapped different aspects of the book. In addition, 100 Afghan students at the 10<sup>th</sup> grade were given another questionnaire to elicit their opinions on the book. After collecting and analyzing the data, the results indicated that, except for the pictures and illustrations used in the book, other aspects including ‘meeting syllabus objectives’, ‘compatibility with Afghan socio-cultural norms’, ‘teachability’, and ‘effectiveness of the testing system’ are confirmed by the teachers. In addition, except for the paper quality and suitability of the illustrations and pictures, the students agreed on the effectiveness of the book in vocabulary development, topic selection and sequence of the exercises.</p> Khayber Najafi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Kasani beej (Cichorium intybus): Ayurvedic View, Folk View, Phytochemistry and Modern Therapeutic Uses <p><em>Cichorium intybus</em> is commonly known as Chicory, kasani. It is a recognized medicinal plant that belongs to the <em>Asteraceae</em> family. This plant is a well-known traditional herb used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicinal system to treat variety of diseases ranging from wounds to diabetes. The species is native to the European region (Mediterranean region) but can also grow in the temperate and semi-arid regions. The juice extracted from this plant is used as a traditional remedy to cure uterus cancer and tumors. The plant is well-known for its roots that are used as an additive in coffee as it provides bitterness in taste without the caffeine. It is also reported that the roots of the plant contain 40% inulin and acts as an anti-diabetic agent. Historically, the plant was cultivated by ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, vegetable crop, coffee substitute and also used as animal forage. <em>Cichorium intybus</em> contains various phytochemical constituents mainly sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, inulin flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids terpenoids and many more. The reported pharmacological properties of the <em>C. intybus</em> plant include hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cardiovascular, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antimalarial, anti-allergic and gastroprotective activities. In this review article, the medicinal and ayurvedic importance of <em>C. intybus</em> plant along with its phytochemicals are briefly explained.</p> Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Review Article: Defective Genes Cause Disease <p>Variation in DNA, and genes to a lesser or greater extent, can play an important role in most diseases; that is because this variation in will reflect and affect the function of DNA, and genes (combined genes and DNA or separately). This can be affected by environment, life style, as well as the inheriting from parents and previous generations. All these factors can contribute in human diseases. There are different alterations in genes, like imbalance and inequality in chromosomes, disorder in gene (deficiency in gene, which could be complex or single disorder), and cancer. In the last decades, scientists were focus on medicine and genetics; they pay an extensive attention to reach better understanding about diseases and their causes, to serve patients in better way. This tendency and preparations were focused on genes and the changes that may occur, and the sequences of these changes on health. In this regard scientists studied the epigenetic diseases as well, and the application of genes in therapy. Implementation of these concepts in labs and clinics required full understanding of genetic alterations.</p> Istabraq A. Al-Husseiny Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Different Colored Polythene Mulches and Net House on Insect Incidence and Yield of Brinjal in Rampur, Chitwan <p>Field experiment was conducted in single factor randomized complete block designed to evaluate effect of different color polythene mulch and net house on insect pest incidence of brinjal in chitwan, nepal during october 2016 to may 2017. Five different treatment were selected with four replications, included net house with black polythene mulch, black polythene mulch only, reflective polythene mulch only and black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate 5%sg spray and control (no mulch+ no net + no pesticide spray)&nbsp; . The result revealed that the net house totally restricts the brinjal shoot and fruit borer whereas black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot reduced brinjal shoot and fruit borer larvae upto 70.58%. Total marketable yield was found highest in the black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot (49.17 mt /ha) followed by black polythene mulch only (38.59 mt/ha) and lowest in control plot (28.53 mt/ha). Damaged fruit percentage by brinjal fruit and shoot borer was highest in the control (35.68%) followed by black polythene mulch (28.10%), reflective polythene mulch (19.02%) and lowest in net house with black polythene mulch (0%). The damaged weight inside the net house with black polythene mulch and black mulch with pesticide were significantly different whereas the damaged weight in other treatments similar which proved that there was no effect of mulch on brinjal shoot and fruit borer. The B:C ratio was the highest (3.34:1) in the black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot while the lowest in net with black polythene mulch (1.68:1). Although the B:C ratio was lower in the net with black polythene mulch due to the low yield in the winter season. Creation of suitable soil environment by black polythene mulch and being biologically originated, having minimum residual effect and short half-life of emamectin benzoate, black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate can be used for the eco-friendly management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer.</p> Prakash Bharatee, Ankit Soti, Rajendra Regmi, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Ananta Raj Devkota, Resham Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Review Article: Laboratory Tests and Their Role for Detecting Covid 19 Infection <p>Corona Virus Disease or what is known (Covid 19) is pandemic spread quickly among most countries of the world, where the infections reached to 50 million humans, and more than 1.250.000 deaths. The reasons of the disease spread among people are the infected and not taking adequate preventive procedures. The delay of the laboratory test result to confirm infection also contributes in the disease spread. Examples of the test are RT-RPC, which requires a lot of time, accuracy in the work, and high experience techniques. These conditions are not available in almost countries, which do this test for limited people with clear symptoms. In this research, some Laboratory tests are concerned to show their role in detecting the virus, where the result of this study show that the results of RT-RPC test are inaccurate by 20%, and so most of the countries that suffered from the rapid spread of the virus resorted to relying on other laboratory tests that less cost and give a quick results to early detection of the virus infection, and these tests can identify false results of RT-RPC.</p> Doaa Dawood Salman Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Review Article- Parasites: Introduction, Classification, Lifecycle and Relationship with their Hosts <p>Parasites are microorganism that need host to continue its lifecycle, some of them need direct life cycle while others needs indirect lifecycle. In this review article the researcher focus on things that related to types of parasites, as well as their lifecycles, and the type of the hosts, and how parasites affect the host and their relationship. The review comes over a wide range of years up to 2020, and the last published researches that are related to the topic of this review. The review discusses briefly the classification of the parasites and classified them into three main classes (groups), which are, Helminthes, Protozoa, and Arthropods. Eventually, the researchers came to a certain conclusions such as parasites are living species that needs host to continue its life cycle, there are many types of hosts depend upon the needs of parasites, there are more than eight million of parasites and their weight ranged from 25 microgram up to 70 grams.</p> Abdulrazzaq Mohammed Hamood Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Relationship between Classroom Research, Teacher Research and Action Research <p>Classroom Research, Teacher Research, and Action Research are three methods that are often misunderstood. Classroom analysis is research undertaken in language classrooms that reflects on participation in the lessons; the Research’s emphasis as well as the environment in which the data is obtained characterizes it. For language teachers and the discipline as a whole, doing classroom Research may be helpful. Teacher research is classified as research performed by the Teacher; in other words, the person who performs the thesis specifies it. The iterative cyclic procedures of preparing, behaving, observing, evaluating, and replanting are used in action analysis to address challenges and develop local practice.</p> <p>The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the distinctions between classroom research, Teacher research, and Action research, as well as familiarity with the research method in this field.</p> <p>The analysis of vague information in the field of science research, particularly research in the classroom, professorial research, and practical research in language teaching, is the product and result of the research work on this subject, which has added to the richness of this scientific – research essay.</p> <p>&nbsp;<em>Aim- </em>Receiving correct and necessary knowledge on these three forms of Research in the field of English language and literature, as well as a brief summary of systematic and general research on classroom research, Teacher training, and Action research in language teaching classrooms.</p> Ajmal Shahim Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 30 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Salmonella Meningitis in a Two Months Infant from Odisha, India: A Rare Case Report <p><em>Salmonella </em>meningitis&nbsp;is a disease with high mortality in infants though incidence is rare. This article reports a case of <em>Salmonella </em>meningitis in a two months male infant, who presented with high fever, convulsion and difficulty in breathing. <em>Salmonella typhi</em> was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that showed resistance to Cephalosporins, Fluroquinoles, Macrolides and Aminoglycosides but susceptiblity to Chloramphenicol and Cotrimaxozole. This case was admitted on fourth day of onset of illness and treated with parenteral Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone to cover both gram positive and negative bacterial agents of bacterial meningitis in a young infant, but succumbed to death on ninth day of illness. This indicated importance of <em>S. typhi </em>as a possible bacterial etiology and a great concern on resistance to the normally chosen antibiotics. An early suspicion can be suggested to reduce the risk of mortality. Environmental hygiene and household cleanliness practices also warrants attention, which were identified as possible risks for enteric infection in spite the baby was absolutely breast fed.</p> C. P. Khuntia, S. K. Kar, N. Mohanty, H. K. Khuntia, B. Dwibedi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 02 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Cole Crops Disease Management Approaches Practiced by Farmers and its Impact on their Health: A Case Study of Nala, Kavre District of Nepal <p>A case study was conducted at Nala, Kavre district to assess the present cultivation and disease management status in cole crops in the year 2019 with use of semi-structured questionnaire among the local farmers. It was found that majority of respondent cultivated cole crops seasonally and faced five major disease problem in it namely: stalk root (<em>Sclerotina sclerotiorum</em>), Alternaria leaf spot (<em>Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola</em>), damping off (<em>Pythium sp</em>.), root rot (<em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>) and club root (<em>Plasmodiophora brassicae</em>). For management of those diseases, 83% respondent used conventional method of disease management i.e. chemical fungicides and insecticides. But the methods of management of disease was found significant with IPM training and awareness on biological approaches they have heard or related program attained. Almost 40% respondent had practices IPM packages of pest control based on training they have received and 33% has practiced based on the awareness program they have received. Also female guided farming has more probability to adapt IPM tools to minimize effect of pesticides and cooperatives had also played major role in mass communicating benefits of IPM. With 83% conventional management practicing farmers, they reported to face piles of immediate and chronic health issues due to continuous pesticidal use. Eye irritation (16.9%), skin problems (21.4%), headache (10.7%), respiratory problems (7.1%), and vomiting (5.3%), and chronically cancer (27.7%) was reported in the area due to prolonged and hazardous use of pesticides in conventional practices as per the respondents.</p> Suman Sharma, Santosh Shrestha , Sudip Poudel, Dr. Ram Devi Timila Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 02 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Mobile Physics as Innovation to Reinvigorating Active Engagement and Learning Dynamics of Grade 11 Learners on Uniform Accelerated Motion <p>Physics phenomena are widely viewed in daily life, and the technical nature of physics makes modern life seem to be simpler than it was many years ago. Physics teaching and learning, on the other hand, has not always been done effectively, especially in developing countries. This study aimed measured the effectiveness using mobile physics on students’ reinvigorating active engagement and learning dynamics on teaching uniform accelerated motion. The study employed the one-group pretest–posttest design. The design compared the result obtained from researcher – made - pretest and posttest and adapted science engagement scales. The study revealed that mobile physics as innovation had a positive effect on the learning dynamic of the learners, as evidenced by the significantly greater mean in the posttest.&nbsp; The data showed that there is significant difference in the pretest and posttest score of students in the utilization of mobile physics on teaching uniform accelerated motion. It is also evident that learners highly have engagement during the innovation on teaching uniform accelerated motion. Future utilization of this mobile physics as an innovation would raise learners’ active engagement and learning dynamics in teaching physics concepts.</p> Resty C. Samosa Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 05 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Biochemical Analysis of Phenolics Compounds Accumulated During Developing Stages of Wheatgrass <p>The current study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of phenolic compounds in distinct developmental stages of Wheatgrass (<em>Tritium aestivum</em>). The wheatgrass was grown in the container/tray in the standard condition in the laboratory space provided by the department. Overnight soaked seeds were then sowed in the soil containers for 25 days. The accumulation of phenolics compounds was qualitatively and quantitatively checked in the leaves at 5, 10,15,20,25 days. Phenolics compounds were sequentially extracted in methanol, n-hexane, and acetone. For qualitative analysis, various biochemical tests were carried out and phenolics compounds were quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Among three solvents methanol extract was found to accumulate phenolics compounds in increasing concentration at various developmental stages i.e. 5th days - 0.7135 mg/ml, 10th days 1.2614 mg/ml, 15th days- 1.1244 mg/ml; 20th days - 1.8093 mg/ml and 25th days - 4.0693 mg/ml. On the qualitative check, methanol extract was found to be positive for tannins, terpenoids, and glycosides. These phenolics could be analyzed for antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities are the future perspective of this study.</p> Nikita Nimsarkar, Mayuri Kulkarni, Dr. Faiyaz Shaikh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Review Article: Obesity and Infertility <p>Obesity is a main health problem, that affects people all over the world. According to recent articles, obese patients should be denied any therapy to aim improving ovulation rates and achieving pregnancy until their BMI is reduced. We believe that this approach does not solve the issue, but rather exacerbates the maternal and perinatal complications linked to fertility clinics. Obesity independent of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related with anovulation, and a weight loss alone is an effective treatment for inducing ovulation in both obese women with or not PCOS. As a result, weight-loss lifestyle programs should be considered an ovulation induction therapy, with due consideration for a possible pregnancy in an obese woman.</p> <p>Obesity has been linked to menstrual irregularities and infertility, Despite the fact that a critical mass of adipose tissue is needed for development female reproductive function. The severity of fat tissue distribution and obesity are important factors that affect the female reproductive system. The mechanisms of pathogenetic that link them aren't well understood. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are common in obese, especially those women with upper obesity of body, as are hyperandrogenemia, increased peripheral aromatization of androgens to oestrogens, altered secretion of gonadotrophin, and reduced (SHBG), decreased growth hormone (GH) , insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), elevated level of leptin and changed neuroregulation of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐gonadal axis.</p> Meena S. Farman, Marwa A. Akoul Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Comparative Analysis of Disk Scheduling Algorithms <p>In an operating system, disk scheduling is the process of managing the I/O request to the secondary storage devices such as hard disk. The speed of the processor and primary memory has increased in a rapid way than the secondary storage. Seek time is the important factor in an operating system to get the best access time. For the better performance, speedy servicing of I/O request for secondary memory is very important. The goal of the disk-scheduling algorithm is to minimize the response time and maximize throughput of the system.</p> <p>This work analyzed and compared various basic disk scheduling techniques like First Come First Serve (FCFS), Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF), SCAN, LOOK, Circular SCAN (C-SCAN) and Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) along with the corresponding seek time. From the comparative analysis, the result show that C-LOOK algorithm give the least head movement and seek time in different cases as compared to other algorithm. Therefore, it maximizes the throughput for the storage devices.</p> Bishwo Prakash Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seed Priming: It’s Effect on Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Spring Varieties in Kapilvastu District, Nepal <p>This study aimed to determine the effect of seed priming (on-farm, hydro, halo, osmo, vitamin c priming, and hardening) on the germination and seedling growth of spring rice varieties: hardinath-3, hardinath-1, and chaite-5 at ambient room temperature. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) was carried out with two factors: methods of priming and varieties at agriculture knowledge center (AKC), kapilbastu during march 2020. There were, in total, 21 treatment combinations and four replications. Parameters observed were germination percentage, speed of germination, vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of rice seedlings. Hardinath-3 had superior performance in terms of germination percentage (95.35 %), vigor index (183.86), root length (11.51 cm) and shoot length (7.39 cm) compared to hardinath-1 and chaite-5; the speed of germination, however, was greater in hardinath-1. Seed hardening - alternate soaking (tap water for 24 hours) and drying - induced higher germination percentage (94.91 %), speed of germination (96.00), and vigor index (197.43) than did other priming methods; germination percentage of vitamin c primed seeds (94.75 %), nevertheless, were at statistical par with hardened seeds. Hardened hardinath-3 seeds were better in regards to germination percentage (97.50 %) and root length (12.92 cm), while the speed of germination (97.50) and vigor index (210.50) was greater in hardened hardinath-1. Vitamin c primed seeds of hardinath-3 and hardinath-1 were finer with dry weight, shoot length, and vigor index. In conclusion, farmers' are suggested to hardened seeds of hardinath-3 before sowing to promote uniform germination and growth.</p> Sabita Ghimire, Hariom Yadav, Prabesh Acharya, Raju Kharel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica): A Potential Rejuvenator <p><em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> is also known as chitraka, doctor bush, or leadwort. It is the most popular herbal plant that belongs to the family <em>Plumbaginaceae</em> or <em>leadwort</em>. Plumbagin is the most important chemical constituent present in the roots, leaves and stem of the plant that is responsible for various pharmacological actions including anti-malarial, anti-obese, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer. Traditionally it is used to treat variety of diseases such as dysmenorrhea, leprosy, anemia, rheumatic pain, cold, cough, arthritis and many more. It is considered as the most significant herbal plant in the ayurveda medicinal system of India and is widely accepted as a rejuvenator because of the presence of bioactive compounds. Various formulations of chitraka plant have made this plant more effective in the field of medicine. The plant carries various therapeutic properties and acts as a cardiotonic, neuroprotective and cns stimulant. The review aim is to provide data or information related to chitraka plant its usage in traditional and ayurveda medicinal system, its pharmacological properties and toxicity when taken in excessive amount. From the collected data, it is clear that the plant has great potential to cure various diseases and needs more research and development to explore its more pharmacological properties and socio-economic impact.</p> Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Myristica fragrans (Jaiphal): A Significant Medicinal Herbal Plant <p>The tradition of using herbal drugs and herbal remedies for treating human ailments is very old. From last few years, the demand of herbal remedies has been increased. <em>Myristica fragrans Houtt,</em> commonly known as nutmeg, is a very common spice, which is used around the world. It is described in almost each medicine system such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and folk system. It has wide range of fixed oils and essential oils in it for example myristicin, safrole, myristic acid, trimyristicin, eugenol, elimicin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid. <em>Myristica fragrans Houtt</em>is well considered medicinal plant for its extraordinary properties like aphrodisiac, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer etc. The review aim is to provide data/information related to medicinal herbal plant called <em>Myristica fragrans </em>such as its phytomedicinal value in traditional medicine systems like Ayurveda and folk system, its therapeutic uses and associated toxicity.</p> Isha Kumari, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Super Bacteria: A New Hope of Manufacturing Spider Silk in an Efficient Way <p>The important properties of spider dragline silk and other protein polymers will find many applications. We have demonstrated the production of spider silk, which has many important properties, are produced from the bacteria including <em>Escherichia coli.</em> The productions of high molecular weight spider drag line encoded by synthetic genes. Silk protein can be efficiently produced by the microbial system has become an advantageous method like quick secretion and simple product recovery has become an efficient method .From the observation of various experiments done by several scientists has shown silk made in laboratory. The study of RIKEN centre for sustainable resource science has shown that spider silk can be produce huge amount. Observation shown that joining of the fragments by split intein sequence&nbsp; which then cut itself to yield full name protein .Spun into fibers make the microbial spider silk tough , stretchable and stronger. Better modification of bioengineering can increase the amount of production.</p> Chandrayee Talukdar, Swastik Sastri Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 08 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0530