International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> en-US (IJRASB Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJRASB) Tue, 02 Nov 2021 15:07:17 +0530 OJS 60 Paper Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments a New Approach by using Akshya-Swagatika Solvent and Mobile Chromatogram Detection System (MCDS) <p>Chromatography is a term that refers to a group of laboratory techniques for separating mixtures. Chromatography works on the premise of solute partitioning between two phases or solvents. The technique of paper chromatography is commonly used to separate plant pigments based on their molecular weight. Plant pigments include chlorophyll-b, chlorophyll-a, carotenoid, and xanthophyll, which all have various molecular weights, colours, and absorption maxima. In this study, an attempt was made to see how a new solvent (Akshya-Swagatika solvent) can be used to separate plant pigments using paper chromatography, as well as a new detection method developed by us known as Mobile chromatogram detection system (MCDS) that can be used for compound identification and photographing. As shown in the table and photograph, pigments are separated by molecular weight and band colour, with carotenoid having the highest RF value and chlorophyll-b having the lowest. It was obvious that the Akshya-Swagatika solution could be used to separate plant pigments in paper chromatography. Photograph taken with a mobile chromatogram detection system that is much clearer than normal one. In developing countries, both solvent and detection systems are useful in explaining paper chromatography in a cost-effective manner. The MCDS detection system is cost-effective fast method which replaces traditional sophisticated detection procedures.</p> Akshya Kumar Mishra, Swagatika Padhan, Arpita Behera, Madhusmita Naik, Jharana Nag, Rukmani Sahu, Hemant Raut, Gulshan Dandsena, Saudamini Karual, Rinki Harijan, Poonam Pradhan, R. Gowri Kalyani, Hira Bariha, Prangya Parimita Sahu, Balkishan Sahu, Sangita Jagat, Digesh Kumar Dandsena, Pranjalee Sharma, Duryodhan Pandey, Jagnyaseni Sahu, Ankita Sahu, Rajesh Ku. Sahu, Bhumika Sahu, Narendra Raut, Neetu Pradhan, Neha Sahu, Karuna Kar Pradhan, Bhomishma Chandrakar, Girija Sahu Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 02 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Assessment of the Level of Interleukin IL 5 and IL 17 in Patients Infected with some Intestinal Parasites and H. pylori <p>The current study aimed to assess the level of interleukin IL 5 and IL 17 in patients infected with <em>E. histolytica, G. lamblia</em> parasites and <em>H. pylori</em> who suffer from diarrhea and some intestinal disorders, who attended Shirqat General Hospital / Salah al-Din Governorate, during the period from October 2020 to March 2021. The number of faecal samples examined was 409. The parasite infection were detected and investigated using direct wet smear and ether-formalin precipitation methods using light microscopy. All positive samples were examined for microscopic examination by antigen test for faecal samples and antibody test for rapid serum samples for detection of <em>H. pylori</em> co-infection of intestinal protozoa. The results showed that the total infection rate was 46 (11.24%) positive sample for the intestinal protozoa and 363 (88.7%) negative sample, <em>E. histolytica</em> was the higher with 67.38%, followed by <em>Giardia lamblia</em> with 32.61%. The results of the bacterial detection showed that 13 (28.26) positive samples and 33 (71.73%) negative samples, and the rate of co-infection between <em>E. histolytica</em> and <em>H. pylori</em> 9 (29.03%) was higher than the infection rate between <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and <em>H. pylori</em> 4 (26.66%). As for evaluating the level of Cytokines studied, the concentrations of some anti-inflammatory kinetics such as interleukin-5 and some pro-inflammatory kinetics such as interleukin-17 were estimated using ELISA technique. The results showed an increase in the concentration of interleukin-5 in the serum of patients with intestinal protozoa infections, as its concentration reached (10.956 ± 2.381 ml/Pg) compared to the control group (4.334 ± 1.434 ml/Pg), As for the patients infected with <em>H. pylori</em> (4.284±1.260 ml/Pg), there was no increase in the concentration of interleukin-5 compared to the control group (the healthy ones), While the concentration of IL-17 was lower in patients with intestinal protozoa infections (30.114 ± 4.877 ml/Pg) compared to the control group (35.665 ± 3.198 ml/Pg), As well as in patients infected with <em>H. pylori</em> bacteria (31.097±2.001 pg/ml) compared to the control group. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there were significant significant differences in the concentration of each of interleukin 5 and 17, which were statistically significant at the level of probability ≤ 0.01 P.</p> Firas Fahad Habeeb, Ali Mohammed Abed Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 06 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Amir Korer Suri as the First Poet of Pashto <p>The martial and epic poem by Jahan Pahlavan Amir Krorr Suri is the most notable and magnificent historical poetic record that illustrates the history of Pashto poetry. It is a beautiful example of our literature in terms of vitality and style, true Pashto language, metre, and rhyme. This poem's features may be stated as follows: It is an antique manuscript that demonstrates the existence of Pashto literature about the year 130 H. (752 A.D.). It demonstrates that the language was developed to the point that superb martial poetry was produced in it throughout the first century of the Islamic period. It may be determined from this that it was not a novel language. It was certainly at least five centuries old when Amir Krore discovered it, and it had a rich literary history to achieve such acclaim.</p> Ghulam Sakhi Himat, Azizurahman Haqyaar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 06 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Isolation of Bacteria from Rhizosphere, Phylloplane and Caulosphere of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) <p>Rhizosphere, phylloplane and caulosphere is the region where a complex community of microbes, mainly bacteria and fungi are present. The microbe- plant interaction in these regions can be beneficial, neutral, variable, or deleterious for plant growth. The bacteria that exert beneficial effects on plant development are termed plant growth promoting bacteria. To isolate the bacteria from rhizosphere, phylloplane and caulosphere of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena</em> L.). The seeds of 16 cultivars of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L.</em>) viz., <em>Arka keshav, Arka shirish, Arka kusumaker</em>, and IIHR accession numbers 389,386,387,377 Tc, BB44, 391, 433, 434, 427, 447, 448, 476 and 487 that were used in the initial screening experiment were obtained from the Department of Vegetable crops, IIHR, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore. Brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.) plants of different varieties were collected from seven locations around Bangalore viz., Hessaraghatta, Yelahanka, Kengeri, Madi vala, Hebbal, Tirumalapura and Attibele were also screened for the presence of associative bacteria. Associative microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere, phylloplane and shoot regions of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.), revealed the presence of three morphologically different colonies. 80% of 16 cultivars of the brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.) screened showed the presence of associative bacterial colonies. In this study diazotrophic BBI were obtained from the rhizoplane, phylloplane and stem of 16 cultivars of brinjal <em>(Solanum melongena L</em>.) that were screened. The dominant pearl-colored colonies isolated from all varieties of brinjal plants that were screened was identified and showed maximum nitrogen fixing ability compared with that of the other colonies. The phylloplane of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.) plants from seven different locations around Bangalore showed the presence of the dominant pearl-colored colonies.&nbsp; Moderate growth of bacteria was observed in root, stem and leaf bits sterilized up to 35 minutes. Even on surface sterilized roots which were homogenized and inoculated on growth media, dense growth of bacteria was observed there by establishing the presence of bacteria inside the root system. For the first time the presence of growth promoting bacteria on the rhizosphere and endorhizosphere of brinjal (<em>Solanum Melongena L</em>.) cultivars was established.</p> Jennifer Lolitha C., Manjula A. C., Prathibha K. Y., Keshamma E. Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Health Safety and Sensory Properties of Honey from Two Different Areas in Tuzla Canton <p>People's interest in the safe use of food has existed since ancient times, so that even today there is a global demand for the production of food that can be used without risk to health. Contaminants, as well as the type and location of grazing can affect the physico-chemical and sensory properties of honey. The aim of the study was to examine the microbiological validity and sensory properties of honey from two different areas in Tuzla Canton. The research included three samples of forest honey from the Kladanj area and three samples of flower honey from the Lukavac area. In addition to microbiological analyzes and sensory properties, the concentration of HMF in honey was determined as an indicator of heating and inappropriate storage of honey. All samples were microbiologically correct.</p> <p>The sample of flower honey L1, which did not meet the criteria prescribed by the Regulation on Honey and Other Bee Products, was not sensory evaluated. L1 sample was not sensory evaluated due to an increased HMF content of 105.38 mg/kg.</p> <p>Based on sensory analysis, the samples of flower honey from Lukavac were better evaluated than forest honey from Kladanj. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean values for the sensory properties of purity and color.</p> Tijana Brčina, Salih Seferović, Darja Husejnagić, Ramzija Cvrk, Ljilja Bojanović Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 13 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Molecular Markers for Human Sex Determination in Forensic Genetics Analysis <p>Sex determination is indispensable in forensic anthropology, sexual disorder, and also as part of large-scale genetic population studies. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the human sex from whole blood using multiplex PCR analysis. Blood samples from 75 male and 70 female healthy volunteers were taken from Tikrit city, Iraq. Our study identified a reliable set of three primer locus, namely SRY, ALT1 (internal control) and amelogenin locus. The SRY primer on the Y chromosome showed a 254 bp of PCR product, with 100% accuracy for human male identification. Thus, the pair of SRY primers was considered a strong genetic marker for human sex identification. Amelogenin regions in the Y chromosome showed a true positive band (236 bp) with 100% accuracy on sex identification. Amelogenin regions in X chromosome also showed positive bands (330 bp) in female samples and positive band in male samples except for two samples showed a negative band (null bands). The most obvious finding from this study is that multiplex PCR of ALT1 and SRY is consider as a reliable genetic marker for human sex identification. The research has also shown that amelogenin is good genetic marker for human sex identification.</p> Maan H. Salih Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 20 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 How to Write an Academic Essay <p>Writing is one of the most well-known phenomena that may help a civilization evolve and improve. Writing is how a society's knowledge, literature, and culture are passed down from generation to generation for millennia. Writing, as a significant aspect of civilization, should be constantly improved, updated, and given special attention so that it can carry knowledge across generations in the most efficient manner possible. We all know that writing is a difficult process that needs more thought and time. This difficult activity needs extreme care in order to be completed correctly. In this study topic, I've covered a wide range of topics related to essay writing, including how to write an essay, the stages to writing an essay, why write an essay, prewriting, and how to research, prepare, and write an essay.</p> <p>The purpose of the research on this topic is, in the first how to research and write an academic essay, steps and plans of writing an essay, essay writing checklist and the structure of the traditional essay writing and in secondly, familiarity with the method and kind of research is considered in this topic.</p> <p>The product and result of the research work on this topic is, the study of vague details in the field of scientific research; especially, essay writing (basic essay structure, steps in the essay writing process and …) which has added to the richness of this scientific – research article.</p> <p><em>Aim: </em>My purpose to write this topic is to make clear how someone can write one literature essay by using best method of writing and best structure of essay. It is so much good for me to search about this subject because I faced with some words that before I never read it.</p> Pohandoy Ali Muhammad Khoshhal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Forecasting of Economic Indicators (Production, Consumption, Population) of Wheat Crop (A Case Study) <p>Wheat is the most important food crop in Afghanistan, whether consumed by the bulk of the people or used in various sectors. The problem is that Afghanistan has a significant shortfall of wheat between domestic production and consumption. Thus, the present study looks at the issue of meeting self-sufficiency for the whole population due to wheat shortages. To do so, we employ time series analysis, which can produce a highly exact short-run prediction for a significant quantity of data on the variables in question. The ARIMA models are versatile and widely utilised in univariate time series analysis. The ARIMA model combines three processes: I the auto-regressive (AR) process, (ii) the differencing process, and (iii) the moving average (MA) process. These processes are referred to as primary univariate time series models in statistical literature and are widely employed in various applications. Where predicting future wheat requirements is one of the most important tools that decision-makers may use to assess wheat requirements and then design measures to close the gap between supply and consumption. The present study seeks to forecast Production, Consumption, and Population for the period 2002-2017 and estimate the values of these variables between 2002 and 2017. (2018-2030).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Karim Ahmadzai Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0530