International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> en-US (IJRASB Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJRASB) Thu, 14 May 2020 10:09:12 +0530 OJS 60 Fabrication of Electricity from Wastewater by Utilizing Microbial Fuel Cells: A Review <p>Bioelectricity is the electric current produced by anaerobic ingestion of organic substrate by microorganism. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a appliance that transforms energy discharged outcome of oxidation of complicated natural carbon sources that area unit used as substrates by microorganisms to provide voltage thus demonstrating to be associate proficient ways that of viable energy production. The electrons released because of the microbial breakdown is seized to keep up ruthless potential density while not an efficient carbon discharge within system. Usage of microorganisms toward bioremediation is similar to the consequence as of the generation of electricity creates the MFC technology a very beneficial plan which could be smeared in varied segment of industries and agricultural wastes. Although the influences of MFCs in generation of electricity was initially low, modern development within the style elements and dealing has increased ability yield to a major step thus permit application of MFCs in varied sectors as well as waste material ministrations and biodepollution. The accompanying review gives a top-level view concerning the parts, operating, alteration and purpose of MFC technology for numerous analysis and industrial application.</p> Ms. Bhavya R, Ms. Pavithra V, Ms. Aarthi S, Ms. Dharani K, Mr. Prabhu N Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 14 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of the Spreca River Flooding on Individual Physicochemical Parameters of Soil <p>During the last few years, we have witnessed more frequent floods affecting the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the valley of the Spreča River. Flooded soil has undergone various changes, in terms of numerous deficiencies and heavy metal contamination, where such soil represents a great danger both for people and animals. Therefore, in this paper the physicochemical analysis of soil and degree of pollution is determined. The aim of soil sampling and analysis is to determine its status after water withdrawal, in terms of nutrient supply, and to determine possible chemical pollution. Based on the results obtained, agricultural producers will receive recommendations regarding restoration of production on these areas, the choice of cultivated culture, corrective measures or remediation of these areas.</p> <p>As part of the analysis, hygroscopic moisture, acid-base soil status, oxidoreduction potential, organic matter content, carbonate content and heavy metals content were determined. Based on the performed analyzes, the soil was shown to be of neutral character (determined in 1M KCl), and weakly alkaline (determined in distilled H<sub>2</sub>O) with predominantly reducing condition prevailing in the soil. The conducted analyzes have shown that the soil is very poor in humus, and that the heavy metals content is within the limit values determined by the Rulebook on Determination of Allowed Quantities of Harmful and Dangerous Substances in Soil and Method of Testing there of (“Official Gazette of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina”, number 52/09). Therefore, from the aspect of the pollution degree, the soil from this plot belongs to the first class when it comes to iron, manganese, cadmium and lead, to the second class when it comes to zinc, and the third class when it comes to copper.</p> Melisa Ahmetovic, Husejin Keran, Indira Šestan, Amra Odobašic, Asmira Canic, Halid Junuzovic, Nisveta Hrnjic Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 20 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 On Rise of Cancer in Kashmir <p>Every year there’s a marked increase in the number of cancer patients registered in the valley’s premiere tertiary care institute, SKIMS, where increasing number of cancer patients, especially from the poor backgrounds, continue to pour in for treatment. Sounding alarm bells, leading oncologists caution that cancer has become the number one killer disease in Kashmir and that there’s a need for more, and better, cancer awareness, and latest treatment facilities to ease the suffering of rising cancer patients in the valley. In this brief comment, going beyond the statistics, I put the spotlight on various aspects and reasons of cancer rise in the valley.</p> Maqbool Majid, Sheikh Umar Ahmad, Lone A. Nazir, Naikoo H. Shahid, Malik A. Tanveer Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Possibilities of Utilizing Oil Palm (Elaeis guieneensis) Trunk as a Solution for Sustainable Agricultural Waste Management <p>Oil Palm covers nearly 9600 hectares of Sri Lanka. The replacement process occurs once for 25-30 years creates nearly 200 tons of agricultural waste per hectare. The normal procedure of uprooting un- economical plantations is by using bachore machine. Conventional methods of clearing oil palm trunks after remaining materials in the field cause problems such as increasing breeding places for pests like rhinoceros beetles and rats increase the disease incidents in immature plants, hindering field operations and taking long time to decompose remains. Therefore, sustainable utilization of oil palm trunk bio mass is important.&nbsp; Oil palm trunks from Elpitiya plantation were used for the experiment. A trunk has an average biomass of 1550kg with an 8m mean length. The average number of trees per hectare is 125 per one replacement cycle. Bark is removed from trunks and cut into pieces and chopped by using an electrical chopper. The chopped pulp (initial pulp) was grinded by mortar and pestle and blender separately to produce pulp 1 and pulp 2 respectively. Molasse produced using pulp 1 and pulp 2, give final brix values of 58 and 54.4 respectively. Vinegar was produced using pulp1 and pulp 2 shows an undesirable light brown suspension with an alcohol percentage of 2%. Pots and planting containers for nurseries prepared from initial pulp can be used for nurseries and effective in direct field planting. The study revealed there is a possibility of preparing molasse and planting containers from oil palm trunks. Vinegar production process needed to be further studied.</p> K. M. S. Hasanthi, I. R. Palihakkara Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Yield Variation during the Period (April to July) 2017 in RRIC 121 & BPM 24 Rubber Clones (Hevea brasiliensis) Grown in WL3 Agro Ecological Zone of Sri Lanka <p>Monthly yield variation in rubber cultivations is common and it affects the livelihood of rubber smallholders and also the cash flows of plantation companies. The effect is more pronounced in rubber harvesters, workers, and other stakeholders as their income levels are partly governed by the monthly financial performance of the cultivation. This uncertain income levels results in the out migration of work force, causing the declining of rubber harvesters and other workers in WL<sub>3</sub>, Agro Ecological zone. This has become a major problem faced by the entire plantation industry in Sri Lanka. Thus a thorough knowledge on the variability of yield is essential for accurate estimation of monthly yields and income levels and thereby planning marketing and related activities. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to establish variation pattern in the yield components of two Hevea Brasiliensis clones grown in WL<sub>3</sub> agro ecological zone in the country and to find possible reasons for such variation. Further, ways of enhancing yield and income levels were also looked at using the Ellakanda and Katuhenadivisons of Sorana Estate managed by Kotagala Plantation PLC as the study site. Based on the previous literature, relevant theories were formulated; independent and dependent factors that would result in the monthly yield variation and the required information to be collected were identified. Primary data were collected using tapping blocks of the selected divisions along with relevant meteorological data.</p> <p>The raw data were classified to purposeful and usable categories and were tabulated for statistical inferences. Results revealed that the physiological ability of the tree to produce latex, number of tapping days and the rainfall pattern as the main factors which affect the monthly yield variation of RRIC 121 &amp; BPM 24 rubber clones cultivated in WL<sub>3</sub> Agro Ecological zone of the country.</p> A. Ranasinghe, I. R. Palihakkara, A. Nugawela Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Screening Antibacterial Properties of Plant Extracts against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri: An In Vitro Studies <p>Citrus canker is one of the most devastating disease caused by bacterium <em>Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri</em>. This work was formulated to control this disease by plant extracts. It is reported that may plants posses antimicrobial properties by nature. Hence two weed pants i.e <em>Parthenium hysterophorous</em> and <em>Euphorbia hirta</em> was selected for the work. The aqueous leaf extracts of both the weeds were prepared in six different concentrations and tested for production of zone of inhibition against <em>Xac</em> by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar. The results showed that the zone of inhibition increases with increase in concentration of both the leaf extracts. Among the two weed leaf extracts the maximum mean inhibition (15.13) was shown by <em>P.</em> <em>hysterophorus</em> at 64µl/ml and there was no inhibition produced by low concentration of <em>Euphorbia hirta</em>. Hence from this work it showed that leaf extracts of parthenium showed more inhibition to citrus canker pathogen. It may be concluded that this weed can be used to control the disease and thereby control the weed population.</p> Shricharan S, Sivabalan S Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 +0530 To Study the Ripening Process of Tomato Using Ethanol <p>After the harvesting of tomato from the field the samples are stored in the room temperature (26.84ºC±3.0ºC) some sample kept as untreated samples around 4 to 5 and some samples are to be treated and are kept to the other side and treatment is done by ethanol around 2 to 5 ml per kg and after treatment in sample slightly less weight decrease in treated sample as compare to untreated samples and titrable acidity also decrease very slowly in treated sample as compare to the untreated samples. Some of the test is performed like chlorophyll test, carotenoids, titrable acidity, and weight of samples and shelf life of untreated is 6- 8 days and treated fruit shelf life is around 12 days after that decaying of the samples.</p> Mayank Chauhan, Shivangi Chauhan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Fatty Acid Derivative of Methanol Extract of Oldenlandia corymbosa: A Potential Compound against K. pneuminiae and MCF-cell Lines <p>The acceptance of medicinal plants is increasing progressively for treating human diseases. The phytochemical components; bioactive chemicals present in the plants have a property to protect human body from disease causing agents. The aim of the present study is to screen the methanol extracted fatty acid derivative of <em>Oldenlandia corymbosa</em> by GC-MS and to evaluate its anti oxidant, anti bacterial and anti cancer potential. Plants were collected and extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and the extract was subjected for compound separation by column chromatography. Separated compound from plant was subjected to antioxidant, anti bacterial and anticancer study. GC-MS analysis of the compound was done using standard protocol. Methanol fraction of the O.corymbosa showed antibacterial property on K.pneumoniaea only and it has no effect on <em>E. coli</em>, <em>S. typhi</em> and <em>S. aureus</em>. Disc diffusion results revealed that the methanol fraction&nbsp; has effect only on K.pneumoniae with zone of inhibition 16mm. In our study the methanol fraction showed maximum antioxidant property. IC<sub>50</sub> value was found to be 0.38±0.004 mg/ml. The result shows that there is a concentration and time dependent increase in the percentage of cytotoxicity induced by the compound. The highest anticancer activity on MCF-7 cell line observed with IC50 value of 0.27±0.18 mg/ml. GC-MS study of the Methanol fraction has showed number of phytoconstituents which contribute to the medicinal property of compound. The major constituents present in the compound is methyl stearate (16.62%), Methyl plamitate (14.53%), 1,2-Bezenedicarboxilicacid (6.61%), Trans2-Nonadecene (5.44%) etc. It is only a preliminary study of the anti bacterial and anticancer property of Methanol fraction, an in depth study will provide a good concrete base for pharmacological activity of compound.</p> Archana V, Nitha N Thomas, Arun A Rauf, Boby T Edwin Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 02 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0530