International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> en-US (IJRASB Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJRASB) Wed, 08 Sep 2021 11:08:36 +0530 OJS 60 Therapeutic Interior & its Effects on Patients <p>The interior of the room is influenced by user perceptions of psychological security, closeness, self-disclosure, the ability to form therapeutic connections, and the feeling of the Persons in the environment. Poor treatment spatial design may increase emotions of otherness, hinder agency development, restrict communication, and result in poor service user outcomes and experiences. In this paper, we have discussed the influence of interior design of clinic or home space on therapeutic process. Architectural elements are the generally permanent components of an environment in which a clinic or the house is located such as the physical design, design, size and form of the furniture, closets or other equipment, and the materials used in its construction. Low lighting may have a pleasant and calming impact on an individual’s perceived attraction and customer self-disclosure. The findings show that the interior design of the counselling room may have an impact on communication and other human interactions. The environment of the room may also influence communication. Sommer (1969) found that the discussion of female geriatric participants rose in a pleasant or socio-fugal setting, including flowers, magazines, vase and others. From a practical point of view, knowing environmental variables in advice like lighting effects enables advisors more effectively to undertake therapy. We see counselling contexts as overlapping areas, as do other scholars. The connection between environmental and clinical psychology should be made clear to counsellors, clinicians, psychiatrists and their organisations. They are more conscious of environmental effects throughout their treatment sessions.</p> Anjali Marwah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Identification of Associated Factors and Prediction for the Level of Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Sri Lanka <p>Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be defined as a serious social problem rapidly increasing in Sri Lanka as same as in other countries in the world. The Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey (SLDHS) 2016 revealed that 17% of married women age 15-49 in Sri Lanka have become victims of IPV. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors associated with IPV against women in Sri Lanka and to develop an appropriate regression model and feedforward neural network (FNN) to predict the Violence Index which describes the level of IPV against women in the country. The data records of 2494 ever-married women that have experienced IPV were considered from Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey 2016. The Violence Index was estimated using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Gamma regression analysis revealed that religion, education level of the woman, husband’s occupation, woman’s married time, the age difference between husband and wife, Empowerment Indicator, enough money for daily household expenses, and household alcohol consumption were significantly associated with IPV against women. The optimum FNN consists of one hidden layer with 3 neurons provided a better prediction on the Violence Index with the minimum mean squared error for the testing set. Based on the prediction accuracy, the FNN was found to be better than the gamma regression model. The findings of this study would support an effort to develop the current policies and implement prevention programs against IPV in Sri Lanka.</p> Niroshan Withanage, Sithara Wijekoon Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Human Adenovirus Serotypes Efficiently Transducing HEK293 Cells: An In Vitro Propagation of HAdv <p>Generally, a gene which is inserted directly into a cell does not operate independently. Instead, the transmission of the gene is genetically modified by a biological messenger called a vector, consists of a transgene and a large DNA sequence as a backbone. Since they can deliver the new gene by infecting the cell, such viruses are also used as vectors. The adenovirus is a non-enveloped virus that can be tailored to transfer DNA to target cells, and it has sparked a lot of interest in the field, particularly in clinical trial therapy techniques. For the new age production of COVID-19 vaccine, development of different mammalian cell lines like HEK293 (most reliable growth and prosperity for transfection) and recombinant adenoviral vectors have become the first priority for biopharmaceutical giants and globally approved vaccine manufacturers to scale up their vaccine production. Adenoviruses have an icosahedral shape, with a protein coat encasing the viral double-stranded DNA genome. Because the adenovirus genome is relatively small, it's a good candidate for insertion of foreign DNA. The adenovirus E1A gene is deleted, and the virus loses its capacity to replicate. This ability can be restored during cell culture propagation by employing cells that produce the E1A protein, for example. Hence, in this mini research, I have shared an overview of the propagation of adenoviral vectors, i.e. recombinant adenovirus SARS CoV-2 vector in HEK-293 cell suspension culture.</p> Mr. Utkalendu Suvendusekhar Samantaray, Ms. Piyanki Santra Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Investigation of Some Immunological Markers in Covid-19 Vaccinated Individuals: A Review Article <p>The COVID 19 pandemic has caused great havoc amongst the people in society across the globe. It has affected people both physically and emotionally. The epicentre of the virus has been attributed to Wuhan, from where it spread in the different parts of the globe. Vaccination emerged as one of the best solutions to deal with the proliferation of the virus. It also helped people to protect themselves against hospitalization and reduced death rates. The researcher has used Secondary sources to gather information and data related to the immunological markers in Covid-19 vaccinated population. A major immune marker is the manufacturing of neutralizing antibodies. However, the further implication in this aspect is still under research by scientists.</p> Sulaiman M. Hasan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Sat, 11 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A Six-Step Process to Reduce Bullying in Schools; The Content of a Health Promotion Intervention to Reduce Bullying Among Early Adolescents in a Rural School in Sri Lanka <p>Bullying is a form of aggression which has negative impacts on health. Bullying acts are reported to be common among early adolescents in rural schools in Sri Lanka. It is timely to design and implement interventions aiming to reduce bullying in schools in Sri Lanka. In this article, we aim to describe the process and the content of a health promotion intervention carried out aiming to reduce bullying among early adolescents in a rural school in Sri Lanka. The intervention is comprised of a six-step process. A logical framework developed based on Samarasinghe et al (2011) was used to guide the intervention. The content of the intervention was designed following health promotion principles. Health promotion aims for empowering people- to take collective community actions aiming to achieve desired health outcomes. The intervention for bullying was designed aiming for empowering early adolescents -to generate collective actions to reduce bullying in their school. In the intervention, adolescents not merely participated but also engaged and involved in modifying the planned intervention. Different activities, brainstorming sessions, facilitated discussions, role plays, etc. were carried out in the process. In this intervention, the health promotion approach we employed enabled engagement and involvement of adolescents beyond mere participation in the intervention.</p> Krishani Jayasinghe, Duminda Guruge, Manuja Perera Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Molecular Screening of bla-TEM-68 Gene for TEM-68 ESBLs Resistant K. pneumoniae and C. freundii from Hospital Waste in Adamawa state Specialist Hospital, Yola <p>Resistant strains of <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>C. freundii</em> due to under use and over use of antibiotics and biocides has contributed to economic burden due to nosocomial infections. This study focuses on screening hospital wastes for antibacterial and biocide resistant <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>C. freundii</em> in Adamawa state specialist hospital, Yola. One hundred and twenty (120) hospital wastes samples were analysed. Samples were cultured on appropriate media and incubated at 37 <sup>o</sup>C for 24h. Biochemically identified isolates were molecularly confirmed and sequenced. <em>K. pneumoniae</em> being 93% identical to strain KPNIH48 and <em>C. freundii</em> being 99% identical to complex sp CFNH4 were confirmed. Resistant <em>K. pneumonia </em>and<em> C. freundii</em> were subjected to phenotypic ESBLs test, then DDS test was carried out to confirm ESBLs production. Phenotypically ESBLs positive <em>K. pneumoniae</em> were positive for DDST but negative for <em>C. freundii</em>. The DDST positive isolates were then screened for <em><sup>bla-</sup></em>TEM-68 gene. All the DDST positive <em>K. pneumoniae</em> harboured the <em><sup>bla</sup></em><sup>-</sup>TEM-68 gene but none in <em>C. freundii.</em> The isolates carrying <em><sup>bla-</sup></em>TEM-68 gene were cured using 10 % SDS and the results showed that the ESBLs genes were plasmid and/or chromosomally encoded. The presence of <em>K. pneumonia</em>e carrying <em><sup>bla-</sup></em>TEM-68 gene indicates a possibility for increased nosocomial infections in Adamawa state and Nigeria at large and so relevant preventive recommendations were made.</p> Abubakar, I., Mohammed, A., Tanko, M.M., Elisha, R. Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Elucidating the Role of Nrf2 Factor Interactions in Various Disorders of Human System and It’s Proteomic Approaches: A Novel Study <p>Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is also known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived-like-2, is a transcription factor which is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene. It is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein which coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. It modulates a cellular antioxidant response program and plays a major role in the protection against oxidants and electrophiles; extracellular and intracellular oxidant/electrophiles have great contributions to the damages in cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids or DNA. Keap1 protein which is a regulator of Nrf2, is a highly redox-sensitive member of BTB-Kelch family assembling with Cul3 protein to form a Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex for Nrf2 degradation.&nbsp; Thus, this factor is a regulator of many processes of life and it’s signalling system (Nrf2-KEAP-1-ARE pathway) has been found to participate in various ocular or eye diseases and even other systemic diseases such as respiratory disease, chronic diseases or cancer. In microbial infections, the host oxidative stress response may lead to the production of cytoprotective molecules, which in turn induces the activation of cellular Nrf2 factor. The crystallins or eye lens proteins, (ɑB-crystallin being one of them) may possibly interact with Nrf2 factor and regulate oxidative stress, but it is yet to be deciphered. Proteomic studies may provide valuable information, regarding such detailed protein interactions and their pathways especially in case of diseases or infections in the upcoming days.</p> Aparajita Chakraborty Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 17 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Nicotine Administration on Body Weight and Liver Enzymes in Male Rats <p>The study was conducted in Basrah University – veterinary medicine college, used about (60) sixty male rats divided into two groups randomly, control group and nicotine treated group with 0.5 mg / kg / BW, the result showed no significant difference in growth rats compared to control group also significant increase of liver enzymes compared to the control groups.</p> Faraj Hato Johni Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 17 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Comparison of Evolutionary Selection Acting on the Mitochondrial Protein-Coding Genes Between Intertidal and Deep-Sea Gastropods <p>Marine molluscs are ecologically and economically important group of organisms that survive in the challenging environments of different oceanic zones. Of all the classes of the phylum Mollusca, gastropods have radiated into marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, successfully adapting themselves to thrive in changing environmental conditions. Hence, marine gastropods can be considered as an ideal system to study stress adaptation. In order to withstand the constant fluctuations in temperature, salinity and shifts in oxygen concentration of the intertidal zone, the gastropods inhabiting here rely on a modified and adaptive energy metabolism. The same is applicable for gastropods living in the deep sea environment, which is characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, low oxygen concentrations and abundance of heavy metals. Therefore, survival of these organisms may be correlated to their adaptive mitochondrial genome which serves as the principal site for energy metabolism and production in the cell. Here, we estimated selection pressure acting on the mitochondrial protein-coding genes of 13 intertidal and 2 deep sea gastropods based on site and branch-site specific models. The results exhibited higher number of sites under diversifying selection for the mitochondrial protein-coding genes of intertidal gastropods compared to deep sea species. Overall, this study focusses on the adaptive mitogenome evolution of marine gastropods for survival in the dynamic environments of the intertidal zone as well as deep sea.</p> Dipanjana Dhar, Debayan Dey Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Fri, 17 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530