International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> Vandana Publications en-US International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2349-8889 Examination the Quality of Oil Obtained from Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.) Seeds as an Additive in the Production of Cosmetic Preparations and Food Supplements <p>From ancient times the natural plant Cornelian cherry is used for various purposes. The healing properties of Cornelian cherry suit the human body and give it the necessary vitamins, acids, and everything else it needs for the body to function normally and healthily. Due to its antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial, and antihistamine properties, it is increasingly used as a dietary supplement, as well as for medical and pharmaceutical purposes. In addition to the fruit of the Cornelian cherry, in the past, the oil of Cornelian cherry seeds was used, the content of which can be up to 30%. However, the data available in the literature are scanty and do not show true values because the oil content depends on many factors, such as the geographical origin of the Cornelian cherry, the harvest period, varieties, etc., which also affects the oil content in the seeds.</p> <p>Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the average oil content of Cornelian cherry seeds, and to determine the obtained oil physico-chemical parameters that show the quality of the oil, namely oil viscosity, iodine value, peroxide value, acid value, and saponification value. Based on the obtained results, more information is clearly given about the quality of the obtained oil, as well as its use in the production of cosmetic preparations.</p> <p>Based on the conducted analyzes, it was shown that the oil obtained from the Cornelian cherry seeds was high quality, and that it was analyzed in its fatty acid composition similar to other vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, pumpkin oil, corn oil. The low of the peroxide value showed that the oil used has good resistance to oxidative spoilage, which is attributed to the composition of fatty acids and the presence of oil components that have a pronounced antioxidant effect, while the iodine value indicates that it is oil rich in saturated fatty acids such as palmitic, stearic and arachid, etc. where genotype plays an important role. The saponification value showed that these are fatty acids present in the triacylglycerols of this oil, which are low molecular weight, ie there are fewer of those with a larger number of C atoms. All obtained values ​​of the analyzed physical and chemical parameters are in accordance with the requirements imposed by the Regulations on edible vegetable oils (Official Gazette of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina No.21/11.), and as such can be used for cosmetic purposes.</p> Melisa Ahmetović Edisa Trumić Jasna Bajraktarević Husejin Keran Indira Šestan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 8 1 1 6 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.1 Screening of Microflora Associated with Brinjal Seeds (Solanum melongena L.) in Western Part of India <p>Total 110 seed samples of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena</em> L.) were collected from 12 major growing districts of Rajasthan and subjected to dry seed examination (DSE). DSE revealed asymptomatic (07.75-97.5%), moderately discolored (04.50-67.50%) and shriveled discolored (03.25-38.75%) seeds. Symptomatic seeds in DSE showed various types of discolorations, deformation like white crust on seed surface. The seeds with water soaked symptoms and spots on seed surface were also observed such seeds on incubation yielded bacterial species. The incubation of symptomatic seeds about 21 fungal species of 14 genera and 3 bacterial species were observed <em>viz</em>. <em>Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Cladosporium oxysporium, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium oxysporium, F. solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola </em>and <em>Rhizopus nigricans </em>etc and bacterial species like <em>Xanthomonas axonopodis </em>var. <em>vesicatoria, Ralstonia solanacearum </em>and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. The microflora severely affects seed germination (failure or delayed germination), wilting and rotting of seedlings, bacterial oozing, collapse of hypocotyls and cotyledonary leaves which resulting seedling mortality. High yield of microflora was obtained on standard blotter method (SBM) and agar plate method (APM).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. D K Sharma Dr. Nandini Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 8 1 7 12 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.2 Drought Monitoring in Northern Nigeria Using Four (4) Indices. <p>Drought can generally be defined as the extreme persistence of precipitation deficit over a region for a specific period. Eight study locations were picked from the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zones of Nigeria (Bauchi, Bida. Kaduna, Kano, Maiduguri. Sokoto, Nguru, and Katsina) from 1981 to 2015. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index- Thornthwaite (SPEI.T), Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index-Hargreaves (SPEI-H) and Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index-penman (SPEI-P) were used as the primary indicators of meteorological and agricultural droughts. The correlation coefficient shows an increasing correlation among the indices with increasing time scale, with SPI and SPEI-H having the highest correlation. The regression analysis shows a monotonic increasing relationship between indices while SPI vs SPEI-H has the highest correlation coefficient. The number of drought occurrences captured by the indices also increases with increasing time scale with SPEI-P detecting the highest number of drought events. All the drought indices reflect the historical drought periods between 1982-1989, 1992-2002, and 2008-2011. SPI, SPEI-P, and SPEI-H detected similar duration and intensity for the historical drought between 1982 and 1989 while SPEI-P showed the highest intensity and duration for the historical droughts between 1992 and 2002 and between 2008 and 2011.Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) evaluated that SPEI-P was more robust and sophisticated, SPI and SPEI-P had the same score for tractability while SPEI-H being the least tractable, and SPI had the highest for transparency and extendibility.</p> Adeyemi Joshua OLASORE Adebayo Ebenezer OLAGBAIYE Taiwo Adedayo AJAYI Peter Oluwatobi ALABI Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 8 1 13 31 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.3 Bullying in Rural Schools among Early Adolescents in Sri Lanka; Prevalence of Bullying Acts and Common Responses to Bullying <p>Prevalence of bullying among school going adolescents was estimated to be high (approximately 37%) in Sri Lanka according to the Global School based student Health Survey. However, limited number of studies were carried out in Sri Lanka on bullying among adolescents, specifically about early adolescents in rural settings. In this study, we aimed to fill the research gap in local literature. The objectives of this study were a) to describe prevalence of bullying acts and different types of bullying in schools, and b) to describe common responses to bullying among early adolescents in Galenbindunuwewa educational zone in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was carried out in three schools in Galenbindunuwewa educational zone. A multi-stage sampling method incorporated simple random sampling and a systematic sampling method was used. Three hundred seventy-two students in grade 7, 8, 9 (12-15 years of age) participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were employed. Bullying acts were reported as prevalent among early adolescents in schools in Galenbindunuwewa educational zone. Calling mean names, pushing, and hitting, disturbing learning processes were the most prevent bullying acts. The most common response of the victims for bullying were tolerating it and walking away.</p> V. P. K. K Jayasinghe K. M. N Perera G. N. D Guruge Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 8 1 32 39 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.4 Study of Population Growth Impact on Economic Growth during (2003-2017) in Afghanistan <p>Achieving high economic growth is one of the significant purposes, which all countries seek to achieve, and achieving it requires a realistic analysis of country’s economy and a better understanding of the principles and rules of economic growth. Meanwhile, demographic changes over time, as one of the most important issues impacting different parts of societies gaining special importance so that demographic changes can be tangible in investment, saving, and overly in economic growth. The relationship between population growth and economic development has been analyzed theoretically and empirically over time by different economists. Some economists believe which fast population growth prevents economic growth; while others believe, that population growth leads to economic growth due to increased demand, level of production and national income. The aim of this study was to investigate impact of population growth on economic growth during (2003-2017) in Afghanistan. In this study, it has been used the data which provided by World Development Index (WDI) Central statistics, books, journals, scientific and research journals and other related articles. For measuring the GDP growth and simple model squares estimation method from programs such as Excel, Eviews and Pass have been used indeed. Economic growth as a dependent variable, population growth, unemployment average, and foreign direct investment as an explanatory (independent) have been implemented.</p> <p>The outcomes showcase that population growth has a positive effect on economic growth (1%) increase in population growth which causes economic development in order to increase 2.4%. On the other hand, according to obtained results from model summary; gained determination is 0.921. It means the dependent variable of economic growth is elaborated almost 92% by independent variables of population growth, unemployment, and foreign direct investment. This demonstrates strong population growth impact on economic growth and its correlation intensity is almost 1.</p> Ahmad Farid Morwat Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 8 1 49 56 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.6 Efficacy of Mulching Materials on Growth Performance and Yield Characters of Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo cv Shlesha 1214) in Mahottari, Nepal <p>An experiment was conducted to study the effect of mulching materials on growth performance, and yield characters of summer squash under water constraint condition during February to May 2020 in Mahottari district, Nepal. Shlesha 1214 variety of summer squash was used and the experiment was laid in single factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replications in an area of about 600 m<sup>2</sup>. Four different mulching materials black plastic mulch, silver on black plastic mulch, rice straw mulch and sawdust mulch were used as treatments, un-mulched plot serving as control. The effect of mulching materials on growth parameters was found to be statistically significant. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and leaf petiole length were the highest in silver plastic mulch. Effect of mulches on days to opening of first male flower had non-significant effect but had the significant effect on days to opening of first female flower, total number of male and female flowers per plant, Sex ratio, Fruit length, Number of fruits per plant, total number of pickings and the yield. Highest yield (72.16 Mt/ha) was recorded with silver plastic mulch and lowest (46.73 Mt/ha) was recorded with saw dust mulch. Highest B:C (3.46) ratio was obtained&nbsp; from silver plastic mulch and the lowest (1.98) being at saw dust mulch. The use of plastic mulch (plasticulture) mainly silver on black plastic mulch is a better tool for promoting vegetable production in the research area. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Radhika Regmi Nabin Bhusal Sudip Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 8 1 57 63 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.7 Exploring a New Relationship between Gene Regulation and Behaviour Psychology by Employing Acharangenetics <p>In order to explain certain impressions, communication demeanour, emotional interaction and the action arises is a stimulus from an individual in response to his current situation. Our social cerebrum develops this behavioural stimulus - the framework we consider to be the psyche. Psyche outcome is affected by the level of understanding of an organism on which communication or behavioural response develops. Hormones channelize this significant connectivity and intensity. Our characters are reactions generated by certain hormones in the cells of different organs. The shift in hormone convergence triggers a change in character. This article examines the different effects that hormones have on our physiological status and henceforth on our communication behaviour. All the hormones generated by the body cells are monitored and monitored by the genes present in the cell's control nucleus. It sends the signal to various hormone synthesising organs as the cerebrum (nerve centre) senses any character or any circumstance, and the protein is synthesised by the organs according to the order of genes that Psyche influenced. As per the reaction shifts in Psyche, hormones are produced depending on different variables. Since the behaviour is constrained by the hormones, according to the command from the cerebrum, the characteristics that are tweaking hormones blend should turn now and again. Under the order of cerebrum, explicit hormone is generated for the specific alteration of behaviour. In order to explore the techniques by the mode of&nbsp; behaviour psychology, which can regulate gene activity, we have tried to establish a connection between communication behaviour and genes. In order to clarify the association of behavioural psychology and genes, the word Acharangenetics was written. The word Acharangenetics is a compound word, structured by a combination of two words that investigate heredity: the Acharan Hindi root word meaning character and the subsequent word is genetics.</p> Rajan Keshri Harpreet Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 8 1 64 76 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.8 Genetic Metabolism Disorders in Newborn <p>Babies with any type of metabolic disorders lack the ability to break down the food well, which may induce too little amino acids, phenylalanine and blood sugar to the body, there are numerous kinds of this disorders, most of babies with a genetic metabolic disease have many mutation in gene that coded an enzyme which results a deficiency in same enzyme are hundreds of these disorders and they were diagnosed by their symptoms and the treatment method. The treatment methods of the metabolic disorder depend on the specific type of disorders, inborn metabolic disease are some-time&nbsp; treated with dietary guidance, and other childcare choices, many hereditary metabolic disease are initially caused by gene mutations and that transferred from parents to offspring.</p> Owayes Muaffaq Hamed Amjad Abdul-hadi Mohammed Raed Salem Alsaffar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-13 2021-01-13 8 1 77 81 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.9 Application Techniques of Molecular Marker and Achievement of Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) in Three Major Crops Rice, Wheat and Maize <p>With the discovery of new genetic technology, the researcher focuses on using DNA molecular markers to improve new varieties worldwide. Such as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and enhancing quality and quantity at different plant breeding fields. Conventional breeding selection is based on phenotype data selection, time-consuming, and has a high chance of linkage drag<em>. </em>Thus, DNA molecular marker method usage is faster, easy, and not expensive than conventional breeding programs. This review focused on applying molecular markers such as genetic diversity analysis, the genotype of identification and fingerprinting, gene tagging and mapping, QTL analysis, and marker-assisted selection. In another part of this review, we focused on MAS's achievements related to improving agronomic traits, quality traits, and biotic/abiotic stresses for three major cereal crops like Wheat, Rice, and Maize.</p> Muhammad Gul Arabzai Hameed Gul Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 8 1 82 93 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.10 Detection, Screening and Molecular Characterization of Potential Actinobacterium from Lime-dwelling Powder for Extra Cellular Cellulase <p>Actinobacteria, conventionally known as actinomycetes are the most unique microorganisms revealing a link between bacteria and fungi. They are highly adaptable to extreme environmental condition and also exhibit a high diversity in metabolic activities. Biochemical, physiological and genetic features are mainly responsible for their higher adoptability to harsh conditions and extra cellular synthesis of wider secondary metabolites in general and enzymes and antibiotics in particular. The limestone quarry and lime powder dwellings are the harsh habitats prevailing in the northern region of Karnataka. These are the typical habitats left behind after the exploration of limestone and lime powder for highly commercial industrial activities such as production of cement and petroleum refining process respectively.</p> <p>In the present investigation, efforts were made to detect cellulolytic actinobacteria from lime powder dwellings. Actinobacteria confirmed by the basic colony characters, microscopic features, biochemical and physiological properties were screened for the potential cellulolytic activity. In all 54 isolates of actinobacteria were detected and screened to obtain three best cellulolytic actinobacteria, namely DSA22, DSA38 and DSA39. The maximum zone of hydrolysis on <em>carboxymethylcellulose</em> medium was an important criterion to screen the best cellulolytic isolates of actinobacteria. Further, the three best isolates of cellulolytic actinobacteria were screened for maximum production of extra cellular cellulase. The isolate DSA22 with higher enzyme activity (12 IU) was subjected to molecular characterization. Based on 16s rRNA analysis (BioEra Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra) an isolate DSA 22 was identified as <em>Streptomyces enissocaesiles</em>. &nbsp;</p> Sudarshan A Renuka S. Talwar Reshma S Shilanjali B Dayanand Agsar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 8 1 94 106 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.11 A Review on Tubli Plant used as Organic Pesticide: Input toward Sustainable Agriculture <p>The use of a botanical pesticide like tubli plant crude extracts is one of the practical methods for those farmers who are not capable to incur the expensive commercial pesticides. This contributes to the sustainability of agriculture because it has no adverse effects on the environment. This review article introduces the characteristics of tubli plant and assesses its efficacy as an organic pesticide. The most strong and effective pesticidal property of tubli plant is rotenone which controlled various pests.&nbsp; This had been cultivated and used as an organic pesticide all over the world. Some studies revealed that the application of tubli plants enhanced farmers’ productivity of farms and the profitability of their income. Tubli plant is adapted to be one of the inputs toward sustainable agriculture.</p> Enrique E. Biñas, Jr Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 8 1 107 115 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.12 A Comparative Study of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Surface Modified Using Carboxylic Acids <p>In the last decade nanotechnology has greatly developed in many research fields such as engineering, electronic, biological and many others. They can offer several possibilities to design tools, to create new techniques or improve the already existing ones, to discover innovative applications. Nano-science is one of the most important research and development frontiers in modern science. Nanotechnology is now widely used throughout the pharmaceutical industry, medicine, electronics, robotics, and tissue engineering. For biological and biomedical applications, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the primary choice because of their biocompatibility, super-paramagnetic behavior and chemical stability.</p> <p>The purpose of this work is the design, development and surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles. Naked iron oxide nanoparticles have high chemical activity, toxicity and aggregate in the body fluid therefore providing surface coating for the stability of the magnetic nanoparticles. These protective shells not only stabilize the magnetic iron nanoparticles but also can be used for further functionalization. Here the iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method, then this nanoparticle is modified using acids- oleic acid and succinic acid and a comparative study is carried out. The TEM, FTIR and DSC characterization techniques were used to confirm the surface modification. After which, it was found the iron oxide nanoparticle with succinic acid gives a uniform coating of the three and can be used for further functionalization for various applications.</p> Archana S. Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 8 1 116 125 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.13 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Niger Plant (Guizotia abyssinica L.) in Moiben Sub County, Kenya, Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers <p><strong>Niger plant (<em>Guizotia abyssinica</em>), exhibits phenotypic plasticity in different environments. There is need to assess its genetic diversity since guizotia species has a high number of species which may be confused amongst themselves. To achieve this, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate genetic diversity among 12 wild populations of Niger plant from Moiben sub-county. Total genomic DNA was extracted as per the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Ctab) method and subjected to ISSR analysis using 20 primers. None of the primers produced unique banding patterns. ISSR data were used to calculate a squared-euclidean distance matrix. All the twenty primers (100%) gave polymorphic bands thus they were all considered for further analysis. The allele frequency of all the primers was below 0.95 indicating that they were all polymorphic in character. Gene diversity was high ranging from 0.3550 to 0.7337 with a mean value of 0.6302. The ISSR based upgma clustering produced four clusters. Niger plant within Moiben sub-county was found to be genetically diverse though heterozygosity was not noticed. The study recommends further analysis of Niger plant so as to form a basis for further development of the plant.</strong></p> Lynnete Moraa Oimbo Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2021-01-22 2021-01-22 8 1 126 131 10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.14