https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/issue/feed International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2020-10-17T16:30:21+0530 IJRASB Journal Admin editor@ijrasb.com Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>IJRASB</strong> is a double blind, peer-reviewed <strong>"Bi-monthly"</strong> refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Applied Sciences &amp; Biotechnology.</p> <p align="justify">IJRASB is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Health Sciences, Physical Education and all other topics of the Applied Sciences and Biotechnology stream.</p> <p align="justify">We welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. All submitted papers/articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Papers/Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing. We hope you find this journal informative and useful. Your comments will help us to improve the quality and content of the journal.</p> https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/98 Skin Sensitization Assay of Topical Occluded Heat Patches by Modified Buehler Method Using Rabbits 2020-09-01T14:57:19+0530 Dr. Muhi. N. Salmam dr.damuk-sb@hotmail.com <p>Background:&nbsp; Many heat patches are known, based on a reaction system comprising iron, carbon, vermiculite, potassium chloride, and water. The heat release from the inorganic oxidation of iron is initiated by exposure to oxygen, such as when the patch is removed from the plastic pouch. Severe burns have occurred when these products are used in conjunction with a heat source such as an analgesic heating patches.</p> <p>Objectives: Concepts in Cutaneous toxicity is to determine the potential of heat patches to promote skin sensitization reactions after repeated applications using the although modified Buehler test protocols were used.&nbsp; Buehler tests were conducted according to OECD guideline #406 using a multiple-dose design and test results were analyzed using a standard logistic dose-response model. Contact dermal sensitization is an immunological process where the host animal, through repeated skin exposure, acquires a specific allergic sensitivity to heat patches. In the modified Buehler model,&nbsp;&nbsp; using rabbit contact dermal sensitivity is manifested as increased erythema and /or oedema.</p> <p>&nbsp;Materials and Methods: In the modified using rabbits Buehler protocol test, the induction group at 24 hours after challenge patch removal and again at 48 hours after patch removal with induction patches (1 patch per week). Two weeks after induction the animals are challenged by closed-patch tests to the rabbit's abdominal wall skin for 6h. All tests in the Buehler assay are performed on restrained animal we investigated the feasibility of using heat patches topically applied to abdominal wall skin (rabbits) clipped free of hair by experimental induction and challenge phases as an acceptable method to assess the potential of a occluded exposure to analgesic heat patches to promote skin sensitization reaction.</p> <p>Ressuts: Depending on collected tables data of challenge &nbsp;versus&nbsp; rechallenge weeks (1,2,7) senisation reaction results ,shown&nbsp; that&nbsp; the potential cutaneous toxicity of the test&nbsp; heat patches was non –irritating&nbsp;&nbsp; to week sensitizer category using rabbit's abdominal wall skin-topical exposure in the test animals by the modified &nbsp;Buehler test.</p> <p>Conclusion: The safety use of topical occluded heat patches as pain analgesic if the end-user follows the instruction of application properly.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/87 Growth Rate and Antibiotic Sensitivity Effect of Some Natural and Petroleum Based Materials on Staphylococcus aureus 2020-09-01T16:05:54+0530 Esam Bashir Yahya essam912013@gmail.com Khalifa A. Alfallous essam912013@gmail.com Asma Wali essam912013@gmail.com Sohair Hameid essam912013@gmail.com Hanah Zwaid essam912013@gmail.com <p>Numerous bacteria expose to different materials every day. Bacterial genome mainly composed of a single double-stranded circular DNA molecule, which can easily undergo changes or mutations upon the exposure to many substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic effect in term of growth rate and antibiotic sensitivity of some natural and petroleum based materials on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Exposure to each of Bunsen and acetone lower the growth rate of bacterial cells compared to diesel and engine oil that dramatically stimulate their growth. Tobacco based products and the low concentrations of tea and coffee accelerate the growth. The high concentrations of caffeine inhibit the bacterial growth. Wild type bacteria was sensitive to most of used antibiotic and gained resistance to many of them after the exposure to the petroleum products. Similarly, tobacco and tea, which accelerate the growth of cells, make them also completely resistant to the antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of cell walls. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that even natural products can induce bacterial gene mutations such as antibiotic resistance.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/92 Annotation of Plant Genome: A Case Study of Oryza sativa 2020-09-01T15:29:27+0530 Harpreet Kaur harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com Rajan Keshri harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com Tanzeel Tufail Mir harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com <p>Rice! A perennial claim crop of the world. Besides satisfying the eager of energy rice, has also been known to support worlds trade economy. Hence, being a crop of such crucial importance its examinational study at genome level will serve in multiplying its production and quality to irrigate the burning crave of humanity.&nbsp; Likewise, the senescence gene of rice is responsible for its age duration. Hence, understanding its property at 360° will help us to modify or to alter its function in positive portion.</p> <p>Using Insilco analysis mode, the present study is an attempt to examine various characteristics conformation of senescence causing gene in rice. The two gene chosen were HCP and RR because, the interaction in between these two led to the onset of senescence in rice. Two gene that is HCP (Histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 1) and RR (Two-component response regulator) are responsible for attaining the stage of senescence in rice. Understanding their molecular and structural property will be going to let us closer to perform successful adjustments. Moreover, their specific property is also responsible for their specific interaction which led to generation of such signals that triggers senescence. Therefore, this analysis was aimed to understand the features of the two genes as well as their interaction by the means of computational technique.</p> <p>Understanding the features, function and flow of gene will lead us to stabilized effective measure in order to get a beneficiary outcome while going for alteration in its characters. As the pure data for the structure conformation of the selected genes are not available so, we have at first, searched the most similar homolog of the query sequence and the search was based on similar sequence homology on the platform of local alignment tool. And further analysis was carried out on the base conformation of the most relevant homologs (structure/sequence) found.</p> <p>We have analyze the query gene sequence by various dry lab analysis tool to explore its structural and molecular features with the motive to contribute a little knowledge for the sake of further studies to delay senescence in rice plant in order to increase grain productivity.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/89 A Method for Identification of Face of the Person and Presence of Facial Spot in the Face 2020-09-01T16:32:10+0530 Prof. Samir K. Bandhyopadhyay 1954samir@gmail.com Payel Bose skb1@ieee.org <p>Human Face and facial parts are the most significant parts as it reveals a person’s true identity. It plays an important role in various biometric applications like crowd analysis, human tracking, photography, cosmetic surgery, etc. There are many techniques are available to detect a facial image. Among them, skin detection is the most popular one. The aim of this paper is to detect first the person's identity from facial image and finally check any spot present the detected person. The first step is to detect the maximum skin region based on a combination method of RGB and HSV color space model. Next it is to verify the skin areas of human through machine learning approach. The Aggregated Channel Features (ACF) detector is used to identify the different facial parts like eye pairs, nose, and mouth. Bootstrap aggregation decision tree classifier is applied to classify the person’s identity based on Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG) features value. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives the average 97% accuracy.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/99 Effects of Environmental Change on Wildlife Health 2020-09-02T04:18:32+0530 Sumaya Assanousi Lamma sumayalamma@gmail.com <p>Effects encompass perhaps not endocrine disruptions parameters and alterations but additionally feature impairments which could result in disease or raise the opportunity for growing a disease, immune suppression and teratogenicity and non-toxic outcomes. Organisms will try to maintain health by resolving and understanding circumstances, like the existence of invading cell replication or microorganisms. However, changes that are accelerated on health and immunocompetence care, which might affect endurance and people viability, can pose pressure. We analyze the effects which vulnerability to outline a system's price also a shifting environment and also for survival can apply on immunocompetence. We deal with the numbers wildlife health could be afflicted with the change and identify shortages in parameters that could arise where.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/90 A Voting Ensemble Approach for Hepatitis Disease Detection 2020-09-02T04:17:38+0530 Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay 1954samir@gmail.com Shawni Dutta shawnidutta83@gmail.com <p>The inflammation of the liver is termed as Hepatitis. Several different types of hepatitis are from A to G. For example, Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus. Similarly, other type of Hepatitis virus is formed by the name, say Hepatitis G. Some types of virus will not create any serious problems. Long-lasting (chronic) and cause scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), loss of liver function and in some cases, liver cancer are also caused by this disease. An automated tool is suggested in this paper that recognizes patients with hepatitis syndromes. This paper proceeds by implementing an automated tool by implementing multi-phase classification approach. During the first phase, numerous classifiers such as Support Vector Machine, Multi-layer Perceptron, naïve Bayes, k-Nearest neighbor, Decision tree are implemented. AdaBoost, Gradient Boost, and Random Forest are implemented as phase-2 classifiers. These implemented classifiers are evaluated as well as compared in terms of prediction performance. Voting ensemble based approach is proposed in this paper as final phase classification that accepts top two classifier models obtained from first and second phase classification respectively. The reason of using the proposed classifier is to enhance the prediction performance so that patients with hepatitis disease are identified correctly.</p> 2020-09-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/100 Proximate and Mineral Analysis of African Biofortified sorghum (ABS188 and ABS203) and Indigenous Sorghum bicolor 2020-09-02T05:15:29+0530 Sumayya Hamza Maishanu thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Yahaya Abdullahi Umar thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Mohammed Sani Abdulsalami thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Abdulrazak Baba Ibrahim thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Abdurrahman Elfulaty Ahmad thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk <p>A Key Step towards the Release of Genetically Modified (GM) Biofortified Sorghum is its Nutritional Evaluation and Risk Assessment Study. In this work, two genetically modified sorghum (ABS 188 and ABS 203) and local sorghum were subjected to proximate analysis, Amino acid determination, and mineral analysis. Results of proximate analysis revealed the presence of the following expressed as percentage (%) ABS 188 contains Crude fibre (1.89), Ash (1.87), Crude protein (9.00), Oil (1.36), Lignin (8.83) dry Matter (91.17) and Nitrogen free extract (77.05); ABS 203 contains crude fibre (1.60), Ash (0.95), Crude protein (4.94), Oil (2.56), Lignin (8.37) Dry Matter (91.63) and Nitrogen free extract (81.58); Local sorghum contains crude fibre (2.08), Ash (0.85), Crude protein (4.56), Oil (1.12), Lignin (8.28) Dry Matter (91.72) and Nitrogen free extract (83.11); respectively. ABS 203 has the highest amount of β – Carotene (0.83ug/100mg), followed by 0.57ug/100mg for ABS 188 and 0.42ug/100mg for local sorghum. Results also revealed that the food samples contain almost all the essential amino acids in varying concentration, with glutamic acid occurring highest in the GM sorghum ABS 188 and ABS 203 having the highest for Leucine (14.01g/100g). Zinc was present in trace amount in all the samples (0.0003 <sup>–</sup> 0.033 mg/kg). In conclusion, ABS 188 and ABS 203 are considered to be as nutritious as local sorghum, with the advantage that the GM sorghum are biofortified with Vitamin A, Zinc and Iron.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/101 Biosafety Baseline for African Biofortified sorghum (ABS188 and ABS203) Through Feeding Bioassay 2020-09-02T10:37:08+0530 Sumayya Hamza Maishanu thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Yahaya Abdullahi Umar thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Mohammed Sani Abdulsalami thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Abdulrazak Baba Ibrahim thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Gloria Chechet thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk Dr. Abdurrahman Elfulaty Ahmad thauratmaishanu@yahoo.co.uk <p>A number of biofortified crops have been generated through transgenic technologies including sorghum.&nbsp; A key step towards the release of genetically modified (GM) biofortified sorghum is its nutritional evaluation and risk assessment study. In this work, two genetically modified sorghum ABS188 and ABS203 were administered on mice to evaluate the effect of their consumption on liver and spleen. Following the molecular analysis of the two GM sorghum, the transgenes <em>Zeamays </em>Phytoene synthase gene (Zm-PSY1) and <em>Pantoea ananatis</em> Carotenoid Biosynthesis gene (PaCrT1) were confirmed in ABS 188 and ABS 203. There was a loss in weight of mice fed with ABS 188 and ABS 203 while weight gain was recorded in mice fed with local sorghum. In conclusion ABS 188 and ABS 203 are considered to be as safe and nutritious as local sorghum, with the advantage that the GM sorghum are biofortified with Vitamin A, Zinc and Iron.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/102 Wine Production from Different Types of Fruit Peels and Beta vulgaris 2020-09-02T10:34:36+0530 Vaishnavi Fulari fularivaishnavi929@gmail.com Pooja Kaldate fularivaishnavi929@gmail.com Aishwarya Ghatge fularivaishnavi929@gmail.com Miss. Rukamini Potdar fularivaishnavi929@gmail.com <p>The process of wine making begins with selection of fruit. Adding the pulp of <em>Beta vulgaris</em>&nbsp;with the different types of fruit waste peels, helps to increase the alcohol percentage and it gives natural color to the wine. The wine is&nbsp;produced by using the <em>Saccharomayces cerevisiae.</em> Primary and Secondary fermentation of these&nbsp; material is done for 7 to 28 days respectively, during which aliquots sample analysis of pH, alcohol estimation, Protein estimation, Carbohydrate estimation, Ash percentage, etc were carried out using standard procedure. During the fermentation period, consistent increase in alcohol content was observed with the time. This study shows that acceptable wine can be produced from different types of fruit peels and <em>beta vulgaris</em>.</p> <p>Wine has been produced by mixing different types of fruit peels and <em>Beta vulgaris</em>.</p> <p>Among all the wine attributes, the contribution of fruit peels and <em>Beta vulgaris</em> wine was maximum.</p> 2020-09-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/93 The Use of Vitormone (Azotobacter chroococcum) A Liquid Bio-Fertilizer Along with Chemical Fertilizer on Crop Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) 2020-09-04T03:45:01+0530 Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com A. K. Vyas meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Anchal Das meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj Kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum L</em>) is widely cultivated as a staple food crop of the world as well as in India. However, due to continuous use of chemical fertilizers the productivity is decreasing. Hence an experiment was conducted to study the effect of Vitormone (<em>Azotobacter chroococcum</em>) alongwith RDF at Agronomy Division, I.A.R.I. New Delhi. Results compiled indicated that application of Vitormone @ 2.0 ml/L alongwith RDF significantly increase tillers/m<sup>2</sup> (49.17%), productive tillers/m<sup>2</sup> (56.50%), ear length (32.18%), spikelets/ear (25.86%), grains/spikelet (29.72%), straw yield (53.77%), 1000 grain weight (21.80%), protein content (20.62%) and yield (78.10%) over control and 8.57% over RDF. Similarly, foliar nitrogen nutrition by Vitormone (<em>Azotobacter chroococcum</em>) can reduce 25 % nitrogen dose and increase yield by 47.02 % to 61.02 % over control and on par results with RDF.Also, spraying of Vitormone did not show any phyto-toxic effect on wheat plant.</p> 2020-09-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/103 Production and Characterization of Bioplastic from Phycocolloids 2020-09-05T03:53:19+0530 Avanti P. Karande awanti13899@gmail.com Sneha M. Patil awanti13899@gmail.com Mahananda B. Gurav awanti13899@gmail.com Mahadev S. Mhetre awanti13899@gmail.com Sandip S. Fundipalle awanti13899@gmail.com Rukmini D. Potdar awanti13899@gmail.com <p>Plastic that is made partly or wholly from polymer derived from biological sources such as sugarcane, potato or starch is called bioplastic. It is bio based, biodegradable or features both the properties. The use of Bio plastic is growing rapidly because of their clear advantage over traditionally used plastic. Bio plastic can be used in packaging industries, in the making of capsules and pills, mobile cases, for making baby toys, etc. The main aim of this study was to identify the potential use of agar (Phycocolloids) in the making of bio plastic. The term phycocolloid is used to described a colloid derived from seaweed; a colloid in turn is defined as a non crystalline substance with very large molecules. A phycocolloid is thus simply a seaweed gum. The results of current study show that agar can be successfully used for making bio plastic.</p> 2020-09-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/95 Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane Molasses 2020-09-05T03:51:52+0530 Harpreet Kaur harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com Rajan Keshri harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com <p>Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz Ph, Substrate conc, Urea conc) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses. Sugar cane molasses are cheapest source of ethanol production it can also produce from wheat, sugar beet and corn etc. The study was carried out by process of parameter optimization. The process parameters&nbsp;&nbsp; optimized&nbsp;&nbsp; were&nbsp;&nbsp; substrate&nbsp;&nbsp; conc, pH&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; urea&nbsp;&nbsp; conc. The&nbsp;&nbsp; values&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; process parameters are 30% substrate conc, pH 4.5 and urea conc 0.5%. Fermentation period was 7 to 8 days at 28°C.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-05T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/104 Study toward the Development of Relationship between Ref Gene Expression and Yield Potential of Hevea Clones 2020-09-05T09:28:26+0530 S. D. T. S. Gunasekara pamuditharama@yahoo.co.uk I. R. Palihakkara pamuditharama@yahoo.co.uk S. P. Withanage pamuditharama@yahoo.co.uk <p>Rubber is the third largest plantation crop in Sri Lanka. In 2018, Rubber production was declined from 83.1 million kilograms to 82.6 million kilograms. Development of high yielding clones to the rubber industry is a prime objective of <em>Hevea </em>breeding and selection. Rubber Elongation Factor (<em>Ref</em>) protein mainly helps for the biosynthesis of natural rubber in <em>Hevea brasiliensis.</em> Rubber particles are tightly bound to this <em>Ref </em>protein. Genomic sequence of <em>Ref </em>gene is 1367 bp long. Previous studies found that the positive correlation between <em>Ref </em>gene expression pattern and latex yield. The clones in the group III clone recommendation are needed to upgrade in to group II gradually with their performance. Selected three clones in the group III as RRISL 2006, RRISL Centennial 3 and RRISL Centennial 4 were undertaken to study their <em>Ref</em> gene expression and promoter analysis with latex yield to verify their performance. Quantitative gene expression of <em>Ref </em>gene was done to identify the expression pattern of <em>Ref</em> gene and promoter. Livak method (2<sup>-∆∆CT</sup>) used to analyze the quantitative gene expression and paired t test was used to identify significant difference between control and treatments. Compared to the control clone RRISL 203, the yields of all other three clones were significantly higher as well as their <em>Ref </em>gene expression was up-regulated differently with 2 to 7 fold difference. Up-regulation of <em>Ref</em> gene in the clone RRISL 2006 is significantly higher with seven fold compared to the control clone RRISL 203. The average yield of RRISL 2006 in the year 2019 was 27.3 g/t/t and average yield of RRISL Centennial 3 was 28.3 g/t/t. But the difference was not significant. In January 2020, where samples were collected, the RRISL 2006 recorded highest 55.77 g/t/t. RRISL Centennial 4 was showed around four fold up-regulation compared to the clone RRISL 203 as well as yield also higher to RRISL 203. The clone RRISL Centennial 3 also followed the same pattern but the fold difference was around 2.5 over the control clone RRISL 203. The results we reproved the positive correlation between <em>Ref</em> gene expression and the high yield. However this relationship was not observed between RRISL Centennial 3 and RRISL Centennial 4, as the clone RRISL Centennial 4 showed higher fold difference over to RRISL Centennial 3 but yield was low. Therefore this relationship is needed to be further analyzed. The copy number of <em>Ref</em> promoter also important to understand the clear relationship between Ref gene expression and yield potential of <em>Hevea</em> clones.</p> 2020-09-05T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/105 Effect of Application of POME and Recommended Fertilizer on Immature Oil Palm Intercropping with Pineapple, Low Country Wet Zone (WL2a) in Sri Lanka 2020-09-05T15:28:33+0530 Hettiarachchi V. D. dissatri@gmail.com Dissanayake S. M. dissatri@gmail.com Palihakkara I. R. dissatri@gmail.com <p>Oil palm plantations in Sri Lanka have spread over 10,000 hectares’ in the wet zone of the Island In immature plantations, land productivity can be increased with some selected intercrops. Pineapple is one of the high demanded fruit crop and is a suitable candidate for intercrop. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a problematic waste to manage by mill operators which is generated during processing of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficiency of POME, effective land utilization, ground cover efficiency of intercrop and improvement of soil physicochemical properties. A field trial conducted at Thalgaswela estate (WL2a) in Galle district, Sri Lanka from 2019 June to 2020 June. Experiment was designed with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with seven treatments and three replicates.&nbsp; Fertilizers were applied to the pineapple plots according to the department of Agriculture (DOA) recommendations. Growth parameters were taken at monthly intervals and chlorophyll content were measured. Soil physical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results were statistically analyzed with Minitab software. According to the experimental data, oil palm with cover crop and pineapple along with recommended fertilizer were shown effective land utilization, higher number of leaves per plant, highest leaf length, highest spade meter chlorophyll content, soil has highest moisture content. Treatment seven (T7) shows significantly higher number of fruit forming during the research period. To come to a firm recommendation on POME as an organic amendment and performance of pineapple yield, research should be continued for at least more than two yield cycles.</p> 2020-09-05T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/106 Possibility to Introduce Bamboo as an Energy Crop 2020-09-06T07:13:02+0530 Ediriweera A. L. ediriweeralalani@gmail.com Palihakkara I. R. ediriweeralalani@gmail.com <p>Demand for energy is increasing day by day all over the world especially for the short term renewable energy. Biomass energy has great potential to be an alternative for fossil fuel. Bamboo belongs to grass family and biomass can be processed in various ways to produce different energy products. This research focuses on comparison with bamboo and the other bio mass available in Sri Lanka and possibility of vegetative propagation to plant in small to medium scale wood lots. It will work as a substitution for replace tree bio mass on fuel-wood sector in future. Compare to most energy crops, bamboo biomass has better fuel characteristics. It can grow in degraded land so that it requires less care and less compete with food crops for land. However, bamboo takes comparatively lesser time to mature. First part of the results revealed that small to medium scale commercial propagation can be done through vegetative propagation. Medium with river sand and top soil 1:1 ratio showed highest germination percentage for the bamboo seed. Second part of this study reviled the characterize of energy quality attributes of bamboo species (<em>Dendrocalamus strictus</em>, <em>Bamboosa vulgaris</em>, <em>Dendrocalamus asper</em>, <em>Bamboosa bamboos</em>, <em>Bamboosa balcoa</em>, <em>Dendrocalamus hookery</em>) biomass, when compared to other raw materials of residual origin with a high potential for use in thermal energy generation processes. All the evaluated bamboo species in the energy quality characteristics are almost similar range equivalent to those of biomasses saucers traditionally used in thermal energy generation. <em>Bamboosa vulgaris</em> had the highest calorific value among the tested bamboo species.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/107 Effect of Different Potting Types and Different Organic Manure Levels on Early Stages of Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) Growth inside Oil Palm Plantation in Low Country Wet Zone (WL 2a) in Sri Lanka 2020-09-06T12:42:51+0530 Nanayakkara G. T. dissatri@gmail.com Dissanayake S. M. dissatri@gmail.com Palihakkara I. R. palihakkara@crop.ruh.ac.lk <p>Bamboos are naturally propagating both sexually and asexually from seeds and rhizomes. <em>Dendrocalamus asper</em> is one of the popular multipurpose bamboo species in Sri Lanka and lack of research conducted in the country. Therefore to recommend proper potting type, basal dressing and planting hole dimensions are timely important. The objectives of the present study were to identify effective potting type with proper pot height and suitable basal dressing at nursery stage and effective planting hole dimension at field level along with, measure the vegetative growth of <em>Dendrocalamus asper</em>. A field trial conducted at Thalgaswella estate (WL2a) in Galle district, Sri Lanka from May 2019 to March 2020. At the nursery stage seedlings were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with twelve replicates. At the field level plants were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with six replicates and data were statistically analyzed by using software (SAS version 9.1). According to the results, nursery with 10” height black polythene pot with sand: coir dust: compost: top soil in 2; 1; 3/4; 1/2 potting media and at field level bamboo plants planted in 2 x 2 x 2 ½&nbsp; feet size hole was shown the highest growth performance at 6 months after field establishment. Therefore it is recommended to use 10” height black polythene pot with the ratio of sand: coir dust: compost: top soil in 2; 1; 3/4; 1/2 potting media at nursery level. When transfer plants to field planting 2 x 2 x 2 ½ feet planting hole is more suitable.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/108 Casualties Caused by COVID-19 on Education System 2020-09-11T17:13:27+0530 Harpreet Kaur Harpreet harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com Rajan Keshri harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com Anjali Sharma harpreetkaur1182@yahoo.com <p>Ascend from obliteration above, brief details on setbacks required. We have to tolerate a lot of COVID-19 interference. The quality of each association is down. It has given our socially interfacing network a major smash of. Every association which depends on social cooperation is closed. Likewise, as we work out how to collaborate and develop our social and communication skills, colleges and colleges are facing a lot of problems. Other than going to the instructional rehearsals change. Criticism about the presentation is weak. In this pandemic case, they need to deal with a lot of issues. The circumstance in which communication network interaction can cause disease dissemination across the network. And here in this study, in the time of COVID-19, we have discussed nearly all the problems faced by the training process.</p> <p>The exposer of the problem is just as critical as the development of achievement. Before and even if we know that we can't survive how many challenges we have. An agreement was required to tackle any problem. Plans are also carried out after all of the problems are understood. Then we tried to mention all the challenges that the preparation system for its resilience in the time of the pandemic had to face.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/126 Biological Sustainability and Unwanted Paper Reprocessing 2020-09-15T10:32:49+0530 Reemah Mohammed Abdullah Sallam rema.sallam@gmail.com <p>In concurrence with natural maintainability and furthermore as an approach to amplify the reusing methods for prints out of direct electro-photography with fluid toner the outcomes of investigating the consequences of vacillations on paper conditions on the resources of reused strands has been introduced. Moving of printing machine necessities, regarding of particle varieties, contains those contrary moderate and pincers chamber. Reliant on the results we might contemplate it that the move in the voltage of these contrary forceps more affects the reusing viability concerning the voltage move of this middle of the road chamber. Splendor advantage is higher when the printing for reusing was made on uncoated paper interestingly with covered, and dependent upon the voltage changes. Successful remaining ink focus reduces much more close by sheets got from reused tests than uncoated paper regarding both papers. A system for how large is these voltages to secure ideal printing propagation are completely given. Indeed, even the extra examination will join the development in the territory of crisp building, progressed materials, and shut circle frameworks; thus the significant terms inside the district of ecological manageability.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/117 Review on: Growing a Glass of Rich Immune Booster at Your Home: Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat Grass) Beneficial Effect on Health in this Pandemic Scenario 2020-09-16T10:27:54+0530 Shalini Balakrishnan shalini.balan17@gmail.com <p>In this review article attention is put towards the common India medicinal plant, Wheat grass that has been put into use as a part of Ayurvedic medicine. Wheat grass juice is an effective healer because it contains all mineral known to man and vitamins A, B-Complex, C E and K. It is extremely rich in protein and contains 17 amino acids, the building blocks of protein. It contains enzymes that decomposes superoxide radicals in the body. Wheat grass seems to have positive effects on blood sugar levels. Wheat grass juice seems to increase strength and endure and renew health. Wheat grass juice consumption is seen both in urban and rural diet style. Thus, it is necessary to study and research the relevant medicinal effect of these active components found in young wheat grass on both normal and COVID effected patients to fight the diseases by enhancing the function of immune system to ward off infection and diseases. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/116 Study of Various Ecological Aspects on Digenetic Trematode Parasites in Important Food Fish Rita rita (Ham.) from Lucknow (India) 2020-09-19T12:19:57+0530 Shilpi Yadav shilpi2028@gmail.com Satish Chandra satishchandra.lu@gmail.com Anand M Saxena anandmsaxena@rediffmail.com <p>Fish fauna is an important component of fresh water ecosystem and considered as gold of water due to their high nutritional and economical value. However, high water pollution and disruption in water ecosystem causes parasite infections in fishes. Fishes bear heaviest burden of helminth parasites because these parasites use the fish for their shelter and food. Digeneans trematodes are important group of parasites which complete their life cycles in vertebrate and invertebrate host. Since, fishes are the important constituent of human food, these parasites readily passed to the human and causes various diseases. Therefore, it is very important to study the impact of various seasonal variations such as temperature, relative humidity and time-period on prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of trematode parasites infection in fishes. In this paper, we have systematically studied all these seasonal variations on the trematode parasites infection in common food fish <em>Rita rita</em> (Ham.) from January, 2009 to December, 2009 in Lucknow region of Uttar Pradesh. Our results suggest that the highest prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of trematode parasites infection occurred in summer season followed by rainy and winter season.</p> 2020-09-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/120 Presence of Two Lice Species (Insecta: Phthiraptera) in a Goat (Capra hircus) from La Comarca Lagunera, Mexico: A Case Report 2020-09-20T07:57:38+0530 Vicente Homero González-Álvarez homero.ppca@gmail.com <p>Phthirapteriasis or pediculosis is the name given to the lice infestation, that causes skin allergy, anemia, and transmission of pathogens. This case report describes the presence of two lice species in a goat from la Comarca Lagunera in Coahuila. The collected specimens were identified as <em>Bovicola caprae</em> and <em>Linognathus africanus</em>. This document represents the first report of these lice species parasiting goats in the southeasthern part of Coahuila, Mexico. Further research are required including a greater number of animals and farms in order to stablish the prevalence of these ectoparasites, establish control measures, as well as to determine its role in the posible transmission of diseases of public and veterinary health concern.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/121 Large Marine Ecosystem: Analysis and Approach 2020-09-22T17:26:54+0530 Arunima aru.singh10sep@gmail.com <p>A large marine ecosystem encompasses many resources and these are the areas with better primary productivity. Due to the increase of unsustainable marine practices, ignorance of the well being of marine organisms, and polluting of water bodies, the marine ecosystem requires extra measures. To provide aid to the countries and make a joint effort to protect their marine ecosystems, GEF was established. The work describes the comparative analysis and the process involved in large marine ecosystem management. It sheds light on the global environmental facility mode of operation and the factors required to attain the desired change. The paper focuses on management and diagnostic tools like strategic action planning and transboundary diagnostic analysis and how they are being applied using real-time examples. The measures countries are taking to achieve the desired change and the procedure to obtain financial help from various sources are also underlined.&nbsp; It augments the need for the large marine ecosystem and discusses various parts of the 5 modules. It discusses how GEF can contribute to the furtherance of the large marine ecosystem and provide guidance to the countries. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/133 The Effects of Aqueous Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolia on the Defense System of Diabetic Rabbits 2020-09-24T11:44:07+0530 R. P. Obongekpe obongekperichard2@gmail.com <p>This study was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous <em>Moringa oleifera </em>and <em>Gongronema latifolia </em>on the defense system of diabetic rabbits. This study was carried out in the Agriculture Laboratory of the Department of Animal Science, University of Uyo, Uyo. A total of Twenty five (25) rabbits consisting of 10 males and 15 females were randomly from animal house of University of Uyo, Uyo. The experimental animals were allowed two weeks of stabilization period and feeding trials lasted for twelve weeks. Five rabbits were randomly allocated to each treatment. The floor of the pens were cleaned daily, feed and water were provided ad libitum. Leaves were air dried under shade for ten days, all leaves were threshed carefully to separate leaves from twigs before blending. Twenty percent (20%) of M. oleifera, (20%) G. latifolia (20%) leaf meals were added to each supplemented diet. The proximate composition, nutritional factors and vitamin content of air dried G. latifolia, and M. oleiferaleaves were separately analyzed using standard methods to have 26.92% crude protein, 13.60% crude fibre, 10.25% Ash, 11.90% moisture and 2129IUvitamin A,6.05%vitamin C, 805.5mg/100g of G. latifolia, and M. oleifera had 26.96% crude protein, 9.60% crude fibre, 7.13% Ash, 14.23% moisture and 1806IU vitamin A, 7.43% vitamin C, and 666.6mg/100g vitamin E. The results of the study showed significant differences (P&lt;0.05) among the treatment in final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and total body weight gain. The effect of treatment on feed conversion ratio were significantly different (P&lt;0.05) in favour of rabbits on M. oleifera leaf meal T1 and G. latifolium leaf meal T2.Also, other growth performance parameters – daily weight gain and final body weight were better(P&lt;0.05) and higher for rabbits on M. oleifera leaf T1 and G. latifolium leaf T2 diets. Average daily weight gain, final body weight and feed conversion ratio values of 10.20 ± 0.54g, 1.52 ± 0.18kg and33.00 ± 2.89 was reported for rabbits on T1, respectively, while the respective values recorded for rabbits on T2 were 10.23 ± 0.81g, 1.44 ± 0.12kg and 31.85 ± 3.42. Average feed intake was higher for rabbits in T1 (1024g/day) and lowest for those in T2 (830g/day). The feed cost/kg gain was lowest for rabbits in T1 (40.34). Graded doses of the leaves extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg oral) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Following treatment, Moringa oleifera (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg oral) produced highly significant (p&lt;0.001) reduction in blood glucose levels at 2nd hour in fasted normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. But, maximum percentage reduction in blood glucose was seen with 200mg/kg dose when compared to control. The same thing was applicable with aqueous extract gongronema latifolium leaves. It was therefore concluded that the leaves of moringa oleifera and gongronema administered at the dosages used and for the duration of the experiment had significant treatment effects the defense system of diabetic rabbits and finally that the use of both herbs simultaneously will have higher effects in treatment of diabetics than when used differently. Implications and recommendations were made from the findings of the study<em>.</em> &nbsp;</p> 2020-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/134 Nutritional Assessment of Graded Levels of Fermented Mixtures of Cassava Peels and Palm Kernel Cake on Growth Weight, Haemoglobin Content, Serum Biochemistry, Economic and the Carcass Evaluation of Pigs 2020-09-24T11:55:16+0530 R. P. Obongekpe obongekperichard2@gmail.com <p>The effect of feeding graded amounts of fermented mixtures of cassava peels and palm kernel cake on pig output was explored in this research. The experiment was performed at the Teaching and Research Farm Swine Unit, Uyo University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom County. Cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake were combined in a 3:1 ration and allowed to ferment for six days in an air-tight environment, after which they were sundried. The commodity is known as the FCP blend. A total of 40 big white breeder pigs were used for the research. Based on average initial weights (20-25 kg), the pigs were divided into 5 groups and each group of rising pigs was assigned to each of the five treatment diets using a fully randomised system (CRD). 2 replicates of 4 pigs (2 male and 2 female) were found in each treatment group. These pigs were fed twice a day and adlibitium was provided in water. The treatment diets were based on the following formulations of cassava peels / PKC at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% maize substitution in the control diet. The 50:50 ratio of cassava peels and palm kernel cake was extracted from a manual scale equivalent weight (kg) of the two test ingredients percentage in the diet, both diets were formulated as iso-nitrogenic and iso-caloric. At all stages, weekly feed intake, weight changes, serum / haematology reaction and economic assessment were reported during the feeding trial, while weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were measured to determine the weaner pig's results. Two pigs were slaughtered at the end of the trial to measure the internal organs such as core, abdominal fat, spleen etc and analyse the performance of the carcass. The findings of the study indicate substantial (p&lt;0.05) variations in the performance characteristics of weaner pigs, while animals on a 25% diet offered the highest in final weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein production efficiency relative to other diets ratio (25.67kg, 2.06 and 2.52) respectively. The dietary inclusion of cassava peels / PKC diets in weaner pigs as an alternate source of energy on gross profits per pig(N), pigs on 25 percent, however, yielded the maximum benefit of N2191.30 and proved to be the most productive and cost-effective ration in weaner pigs . There were substantial variations (P&gt;0.05) in the classification of pig carcasses. Important variations (P&lt;0.05) in cooking loss, water holding capability and drip loss were also found. No substantial variations (P&gt;0.05) were found between the quality of haemoglobin, the number of cells and red blood cells. It was concluded that the FCP combination was able to substitute maize entirely without adversely impacting the pigs' overall growth efficiency. Implications and guidelines were taken from research results.</p> 2020-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/135 The Effect of Dietary Protein (Groundnut Cake and Coconut Cake) on the Live Weight Gain, Spermiograms, Gonadal sperm Reserves and Fertility of Boars 2020-09-24T12:12:54+0530 R. P. Obongekpe obongekperichard2@gmail.com <p>The study investigated the effect of dietary protein (groundnut cake and coconut cake) on the live weight gain, spermiograms, gonadalsperm reserves and fertility of boars. The study was conducted at the Swine unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The university of Uyo was used in this study. It is located in the heart of Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. A total of 18 grower pigs of large white consisting of 15 boars and 3 sows were used for the study. The boars were randomly selected into 3 groups (Ti, T2 and T3)5 of five based on average initial weights (20-25kg) and were tagged appropriately while the sows were randomly placed in 3 group(S1, S2 and S3) of 1 in each group.&nbsp; Three diets were made for the three treatment conditions. The boars in T1which is the control group were given normal maize fed, boars in T2 which is the first treatment condition were given groundnut cake diet while boars in T3 which is the second treatment condition were given coconut cake. These pigs were fed twice daily and water supplied adlibitium. Finally, the sow in S1 was artificially inseminated with the semen of the Boar in condtion group 1 (T1), S2 was artificially inseminated with the semen of treatment condition 2 (T2) while S3 was artificially inseminated with the semen of treatment condition 3 (T3). During the feeding trial, weekly feed consumption and weight changes were recorded, while weight gain, feed conversion. Result showed a significant difference on the live weight gain of boars between groups (P &lt; 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference on the spermiogenes and gonadal sperm reserves of boars between groups (P &lt; 0.05). Finally, there was no significant difference on the fertility of sows between the treatment conditions (P&gt; 0.05). It was concluded that dietary protein of groundnut cake and coconut cake could completely replace maize as they improve the live weight gain and sperms quality of boars. Implications and recommendations were made from the findings of the study.</p> 2020-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/118 Bio-Efficacy of Milastin-K (Bacillus subtilis KTSB 1015 1.5 A.S.) as a Biofungicide for Management of Powdery Mildew Disease in Grapes under Field Conditions 2020-09-25T15:44:35+0530 Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com S. D. Sawant meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com P. G. Adsule meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>Field bio-efficacy of Milastin-K (<em>Bacillus subtilis KTSB-1015 1.5% A.S.)</em> was conducted for the management of powdery mildew in grapes at National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune. Results compiled indicated that Milastin-K alone at 1.0 l/L and 2.0 ml/L sprayings (six) gave about 51.18% and 58.85% reduction in powdery mildew incidence respectively. Similarly, Milastin-K sprayings gave upto 22.48% higher yield over sulphur treatment. Likewise, four sprayings of systemic fungicides belonging to trizole group and then two spraying of Milastin-K @ 2.0 ml/L showed 99.98% control of powdery mildew on leaves and 92.31% control on bunches and increase in yield by 63.32% over sulphur treatment. Similarly, there was no any abnormality and phytotoxic effect observed by spraying Milastin-Kupto 2.0 ml/L alone or if sprayed after trizole fungicides. Therefore, Milastin-K a bio-fungicide fits well in integrated disease management and may be useful for export grape cultivation. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/127 Bio-Efficacy of 'SUDOTM' (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as a Bio-Control Agent against Early Blight (Alternaria solani) Disease of Tomato 2020-09-25T15:57:40+0530 V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Gurudatt Hegade meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>Tomato (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)</em> is the most popular vegetable crop grown in India as well as in the world which is attacked by several diseases. Among the various diseases, early blight caused by <em>Alternaria solani</em> has become the constraint resulting in huge yield losses. Continuous usage of chemical methods leads to environment, soil and water pollution. However, biological control of diseases is long lasting, inexpensive, eco-friendly and harmless to target organisms. A field bio-efficacy study was conducted for evacuation of SUDO (<em>Pseudomonas fluorescens)</em> for control of tomato early blight disease. The results compiled suggest that the two sprays with 'SUDO' @ 2.0 ml/L followed or preceded by chemical fungicides was found effective in the management of early blight disease of tomato. Minimum PDI of 9.88 was recorded in T-1 treatment (chemical), followed by combination of treatments of chemicals + SUDO with 11.88 to 28.34 PDI which are significantly lower than control treatment (42.40 PDI). Even SUDO @ 2.0 ml/L alone recorded significantly more plant height (17.42%), and fruit yield (58.10%) with reducing early blight disease by 33.16% over control treatment. Similarly spraying of SUDO did not show any phyto-toxic effect on tomato plants.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/94 Beneficial Effect of Taba® (Gibberellic Acid 0.001% L) A Liquid Growth Promoter and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological and Yield Contributing Characters in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) Under Rainfed Conditions 2020-09-28T07:14:30+0530 V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com M. S. Dandge meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com M. S. Khakare meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj Kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max L. Merrill)</em> is one of the most important oilseed crop in the world accounting for more than 50% of oilseeds produced and 30% of the total supply of all vegetable oils. Nutrient management is one of the most important factors in successful cultivation of crops. The productivity of soybean in India is very low (1228 kg/ha) as compare to the world’s average productivity (2509 kg/ha). Hence, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of TABA<sup>®</sup> (Gibberellic acid 0.001% L) on soybean yield in rainfed conditions. TABA® 0.5, 1.0, 200 ml/L along with 100% RDF and 75% RDF were evaluated at Dr. PDKV, Akola (Amravati). Results compiled indicated that two applications of TABA® @ 2.0 ml/L along with RDF significantly increase no. of branches/plant (62.93), yield/plant (76.47%), 100 seed weight (13.28%), straw yield (60.84%),&nbsp; and yield by 57.80% over control and 27.67% over RDF. Similarly, TABA® along with&nbsp; 75% RDF can help to increase yield upto 34.70% over control and 8.98% over RDF. Hence, we can save 25% fertilizer dose for soybean crop for getting yield upto RDF. Similarly, spraying of TABA® did not show any phytotoxic effect on soybean crop.</p> 2020-09-03T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/150 Precipitation and Separation Cations from Binary Aqueous Systems using Waste Sludge from the Solway Process 2020-10-01T16:43:37+0530 Halid Junuzović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Amra Selimović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Sabina Begić halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Mirsad Salkić halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Ramzija Cvrk halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Melisa Ahmetović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba <p>In addition to soda, the Solway production process yields large amounts of waste sludge that contains a high percentage of CaCO<sub>3</sub> and Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>. In this paper, solid waste sludge from a soda factory in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a certain granulation was used to remove metal ions from the binary system initial concentrations of 500 mg/L. The research results showed that the precipitation efficiency for the binary system Cu - Ni was 99.810% at a pH of 11.42 for Cu<sup>2+</sup> and 99.896% for Ni<sup>2+</sup> at a pH of 10.86, while for the binary system Pb - Zn it was 99.84% at the same pH value of 10.64. This research has shown that it is very difficult to separate and remove metal precipitation from binary systems because the optimal pH for one metal does not correspond to another metal.&nbsp;</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/151 Characterization of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patients at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia 2020-10-01T16:52:36+0530 Kachinda Wezi wezi2014lamu@gmail.com Trevor Kaile wezi2014lamu@gmail.com Peter Julius wezi2014lamu@gmail.com Chirwa Emmanuel wezi2014lamu@gmail.com Chifumbe Chintu wezi2014lamu@gmail.com Sumbukeni Kowa wezi2014lamu@gmail.com <p>Introduction: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a highly malignant clonal&nbsp;&nbsp; hematopoietic&nbsp;&nbsp; disease&nbsp;&nbsp; caused by both inherited and acquired genetic alterations (Song et al, 1999).&nbsp; Current AML classification and prognostic systems incorporate genetic information but are limited to known abnormalities that have previously been identified with the use of cytogenetics, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), gene-expression profiling, and the resequencing of candidate genes. At diagnosis, most patients with AML harbour at least 1 chromosome aberration in their marrow blasts. Numerous recurrent structural and numeric cytogenetic aberrations have been identified and many of them not only are diagnostic markers for specific AML subtypes but also constitute independent prognostic factors for attainment of complete remission (CR), relapse risk, and overall survival (OS) (Mro´zeket al, 2007). With the targeted cytogenetic therapy, 30% of the patients achieve long-term cure. At University Teaching Hospital(UTH) however, the current diagnostic approach of acute leukaemia involves mainly cytomorphology and occasional flow cytometry. The cytomorphological blast characterization is not enough to provide a critical&nbsp;&nbsp; determination of prognosis and developing a treatment plan.&nbsp;&nbsp; Most of the AML patients at the UTH die within few months after diagnosis despite being put on chemotherapy. Cytogenetic analysis is not done despite the cytogenetic abnormalities being the&nbsp;&nbsp; major predictors of favourable, intermediate or adverse prognosis.</p> <p>Aim: To characterize acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) according to WHO 2008 revised classification in patients at the University Teaching Hospital.</p> <p>Design and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to characterize acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) according to WHO 2008 revised classification in patients at the UTH. Patients with AML were simultaneously analyzed for the presence of 4 genetic abnormalities, PML/RARα for t(15;17), AML1/ETO for t(8;21), CBFβ/MYH11 for inv(16)/t(16;16) and rearrangements of the MLL gene for 11q23 abnormalities. AML was classified using the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification for haematologic malignancies. The techniques used were standardized according to the recommendations of the European BIOMED-1 Concerted Action.</p> <p>Results: The overall frequency of leukemia displaying one of the four recurrent cytogenetic translocations were 13 cases (46.5%) of which PML/RARα transcript was present in six(6) patients (21.4%) (3 were bcr1, 1 bcr2 and 2 bcr3). The AML1/ETO fusion transcript was detected in only one(1) case (3.6%) with M2 morphology, but other cases with M2 morphology were negative. CBFβ/MYH11 transcript was present in 2 cases (7.1%) and some of them displaying M4Eo morphology. Finally, 4 cases (14.3%) showed rearrangements of the MLL gene. By contrast, the frequency of AML not otherwise characterized which was 15 cases (53.6%) increased with age (13% for 6-35years age group, 20% for 36-65years age group and 67% for above 66years age group). Our results differ from those reported from the United States and North/Central Europe, particularly regarding the incidence of t(15;17) and t(8;21) translocations. In Zambia the frequency of t(15;17) is higher while that of t(8;21) is lower. This supports the view that geographic variations in tumor-associated aberrations in hematologic malignancies exist.</p> <p>Conclusions: Our study showed that chromosomal alteration PML/RAR t(15,17) which was 21.4% ,was the commonest, whereas AML1/ETO t(8,21) which was 3.6%,was the least common among patients presenting at UTH, Lusaka, Zambia. Our study showed that chromosomal aberration detected in our patients make them less responsive to cytotoxic drugs. The use of molecular technique at point of diagnosis would assist in identifying AML with better prognosis by administering appropriate treatment. The results support the existence of chromosomal abnormalities of AML in our Zambian patients. Awareness of these chromosomal abnormalities and morphology could contribute to the design of cost-effective screening strategies, adapted by our National Health systems according to the prevalence of locally detected genetic aberrations. Acquired genetic alterations such as balanced and unbalanced chromosome aberrations and submicroscopic gene mutations and changes in gene expression strongly affect pre-treatment features and prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/152 Study on Physiochemical Parameters of Halali Reservoir 2020-10-02T03:32:17+0530 Mohd Wasarat thakkarwasarat28@gmail.com Dr. Rajendra Chauhan thakkarwasarat28@gmail.com Dr. Rakesh Singh thakkarwasarat28@gmail.com <p>Physiochemical Parameters of the Halali reservoir located Vidisha in Bhopal were studied in the whole year of 2016-2017. Ecological parameters like temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity and nitrogen. All physiochemical parameters give a picture of the quality parameter in pond water of the Halali. By observing the results, it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study the water quality are below the pollution level for ground water, which satisfy the requirement for the use of various purposes like domestic, agricultural, industrial, aquaculture etc.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/141 Bio-removal Efficiency of Glyphosate by Using Indigenous Laccase Producing Fungi 2020-10-03T13:34:51+0530 Tin Myat Swe tinmyatswe7@gmail.com Win Nandar winnandar@moe.edu.mm Htike Htike Ei htikehtikeei@moe.edu.mm Nwe Nwe Win theinttheintwin@moe.edu.mm Kyi Kyi Swe theinttheintwin@moe.edu.mm Thet kyaw Ko theinttheintwin@moe.edu.mm Theint Theint Win theinttheintwin@moe.edu.mm <p>This study was aimed to determine the degradation potential of indigenous fungi isolated from glyphosate contaminated soil. A total number of 10 fungal strains have been isolated and screened their tolerance level against various concentrations of glyphosate (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm).These strains were also screened for laccase activity. Only two strains 5p and 6m showed laccase activity and they are characterized, identified and selected for myco-remediation experiment. Due to its macro- and microscopic morphology of mycelia and the molecular similarity, the isolate 5p was identified as <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> and the isolate 6m as <em>Aspergillus Aiger</em>. 1000ppm of Glyphosate disappeared rapidly in mineral salt liquid media by <em>T.harzianum</em> 78.1% and <em>A.niger</em> 87.3%. Glyphosate almost disappeared by <em>T. harzianum</em> 67.1 % and <em>A. niger</em> 67.2% in the water medium. Based on present findings, these fungal strains can be recommended as potentially effective to protect the environment from the herbicide residues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-10-03T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/154 Examination of Physicochemical Parameters of Products Based on Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.) and Honey 2020-10-04T05:07:47+0530 Melisa Ahmetović melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Elma Leko melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Husejin Keran melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Indira Šestan melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Amra Odobašić melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Asmira Čanić melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Halid Junuzović melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Amir Zenunović melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba Edina Srabović melisa.ahmetovic@untz.ba <p>The natural plant Cornus mas, sometimes called Cornelian cherry, has been known since ancient times and the fruit is used for various purposes. Cornus mas gives healthy fruits without the use of chemical protection, which are used as healthy, tasty and medicinal food. Cornus mas fruits can be used for eating fresh or in the form of numerous processed products: marmalade, jam, sweet, compote, syrup, juice, fruit yogurt, liqueur, wine and brandy. Due to its antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial and antihistamine properties, it is increasingly used as a dietary supplement, as well as for medical purposes. Taking into account all the above, the aim of this paper is to examine samples of a mixture of honey and fresh wild Cornelian cherry, as well as a sample of honey and Cornelian cherry and determine the physical - chemical parameters: electrical conductivity, pH value, vitamin C content, HMF (hydroxy methyl furfural), as well as individual heavy metals such as iron, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper. Based on the obtained results, appropriate conclusions will be given and the possibility of registering these products as food supplements will be determined.</p> <p>&nbsp;Based on the performed analyzes, it was shown that the sample of honey and Cornelian cherry mixture had the highest pH value and electrical conductivity, and that the honey sample had the lowest value. Also, the highest value of water activity had the sample of a mixture of honey and Cornelian cherry, while the highest content of hydroxymethylfurfural had the content of Cornelian cherry. The analysis showed the absence of manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in all samples, while it was shown that the highest content of Cu and Zn has the sample of Cornelian cherry 2.665 mg/kg Cu ​​and 14.41 mg/kg Zn, followed by a mixture of Cornelian cherry and honey Cu 2.778 mg/kg, Zn 14.670 mg/kg, while the honey sample has the highest Fe content of 16.72 mg/kg. This shows that the samples are rich in zinc, iron and copper, and that they are a good source for those minerals that could meet daily needs.</p> 2020-10-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/155 Influence of Organic Selenium Application in Concentrate Mixtures on Selenium Content in Blood Plasma and Duck Feces 2020-10-06T12:17:56+0530 Amir Zenunović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Husejin Keran amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Amir Hasić amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Midhat Glavić amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Senada Zenunović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Edina Srabović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different amounts of organic selenium (ALKOSEL® R397) in concentrate mixtures on the selenium content in the blood plasma and feces of ducks.</p> <p>The experiment was performed on 240 one-day-old ducklings (Cherry Valley) which were freely selected into 4 groups, one control K0 group, and three experimental K1, K2 and K3 groups. In two phases of feeding in fattening, ducklings were fed with two and nutritionally different concentrate feed mixtures: starter (from 1 to 14 days) and finisher (from 15 to 49 days of fattening). The control group of ducklings (K0) during feeding received food without added organic selenium in both phases of fattening. In both phases of fattening, the experimental group of ducks K1 was fed with food as well as the control group, but with the addition of 0.2 mg/kg of organic selenium, while the experimental group K2 used food with 0.4 mg/kg, and the experimental group K3 with 0.6 mg/kg of organic selenium. The addition of organic selenium to duck feed had the effect of increasing selenium content in both blood plasma and duck feces. The highest content of selenium in blood plasma and feces was determined in the group of ducks that received the highest amount of organic selenium through food during the entire experiment.</p> 2020-10-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/156 Influence of Some Physicochemical Properties on the Quality of Honey 2020-10-06T12:27:00+0530 Amir Zenunović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Edina Srabović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Husejin Keran amir.zenunovic@untz.ba <p>One of the most important agricultural activities is certainly beekeeping, which significantly contributes to the preservation of biodiversity and the improvement of agricultural and, above all, fruit production.</p> <p>In its approach to the European Union, Bosnia and Herzegovina follows the trends and harmonizes its legal legislation in many segments that relate to agriculture and beekeeping as its very important segment.</p> <p>According to the available land per capita, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not lag behind European countries, because it has a great potential for agricultural production that has not been used.</p> <p>The application of legal norms in beekeeping production is the basis for success in production, as well as health and food quality.</p> <p>The primary goal of this study was to determine the influence of physicochemical properties on honey quality. Data collection was performed on the basis of honey analysis of four producers from the area of ​​Tuzla, Lukavac, Živinice and Bihać. The analysis was performed on February 18, 2020. to 25.02.2020. years.</p> <p>The analysis of samples and their physico-chemical parameters proved that there are statistically significant differences between the examined types of honey. The analysis of the main components was performed with the aim of detecting the difference in quality.</p> <p>The analysis of the processed data was performed in the statistical program IBM SPSS.</p> 2020-10-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/157 Content of Heavy Metals in Different Types of Honey 2020-10-06T12:39:40+0530 Amir Zenunović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Husejin Keran amir.zenunovic@untz.ba Edina Srabović amir.zenunovic@untz.ba <p>The industrialization of agriculture has led to the great use of pesticides, which leads to huge global problems, such as the production of safe food that is safe for humans and the environment. By heavy metals we mean elements whose relative density is above 5 g cm-3, heavy metals can be divided into essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Mn, Ni) and toxic elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg ). Heavy metals are represented 25% in the soil, and the largest percentage is occupied by K, Fe, Mg, Ca, Al, Na. In addition to anthropogenic processes such as urbanization, traffic, industrialization, heavy metals can be a consequence of natural or pedogenetic processes, ie. inheritance from the parent substrate.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the content of heavy metals Lead and Cadmium in the examined samples, to compare the obtained samples with the norms of the EU and BiH and the influence of the content of heavy metals on the quality of honey. Data collection was performed on the basis of honey analysis of four producers from the area of ​​Tuzla, Lukavac, Živinice and Bihać. The analysis was performed on February 18, 2020. to 25.02.2020. years. The analysis of the processed data was performed in the statistical program IBM SPSS.</p> 2020-10-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/140 Investigation of Trends in Agricultural and Meteorological Drought in Nigeria 2020-10-08T07:46:27+0530 Taiwo Adedayo AJAYI ajayiadedayo7@gmail.com Temitope Akinwale Ogunrinde ogunrideakinwale@gmail.com Mouiz Aremou YESSOUFOU ymouizy@gmail.com Feranmi Isaac AJAYI ajayiferanmi22@gmail.com <p>Investigating the trend in meteorological and agricultural drought is important in water resources management.&nbsp; Drought affects agriculture, water resources and the ecosystems of Nigeria. This study investigated the trend in meteorological and agricultural drought in the guinea savannah, sudan savannah and sahel savannah agro ecological zones in Nigeria by using SPI (standardized precipitation index), SPEI (standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index) and SSI (standardized soil moisture index) indices. SPI considers only precipitation, SPEI considers both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to determine drought and SSI considers soil moisture to evaluate soil moisture deficit for both short and long period. Precipitation data (1981-2015) was obtained from Nigerian Meteorogical Agency (NIMET) and soil moisture data (1981-2015) for 3 weather stations (1 from each zones) was obtained from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The result showed that; (1) Trend analysis revealed that the hypothesis of no trend was rejected in the three agro-ecological zones studied; (2) There was an observed significant drying trend at 95% significant level; (3) Over the three zones, the drought indicators showed significant trend; and (4) Comparison analysis of the 3 drought indices used in this study shows that SPI and SPEI are more consistent in the three zones showing relative correlation compared to SSI.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/158 The Effect of Natural and Petroleum Based Materials on the Growth Rate and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2020-10-14T06:03:18+0530 Esam Bashir Yahya essam912013@gmail.com Muhanad Abdullah Abdulsamad essam912013@gmail.com Abdulmutalib Alabeed Allaq essam912013@gmail.com Takwa Abdoallah essam912013@gmail.com Ebtehal Ermese essam912013@gmail.com <p>Most of bacteria spend their entire lives buffeted by changing environmental conditions, depending on the surrounding circumstances, to adapt and survive these changeable conditions. Bacteria have global response systems that result in sweeping changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism. In this study, caffeine, nicotine, and petroleum based materials were used as stress factors to <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, to evaluate their potential ability to induce growth rate and antibiotic resistance mutations. Bacterial cells exposed to diesel showed significant increase in growth rate, compared to the cells that exposed to the other materials. The exposure to high concentration of caffeine surprisingly tern the bacteria to become fully resistant to all tested antibiotics. Our data suggest the ability of our daily used materials to induce growth rate and antibiotic resistance mutations.</p> 2020-10-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/170 Effects of Tillage and Fertilizer Application on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Pearl Millet Field in Northen-Central Namibia 2020-10-14T13:08:09+0530 NS Nwodom stannwodom2@gmail.com PN Nweze stannwodom2@gmail.com <p>The influence of Physico-chemical properties of soil as affected by tillage systems and fertilizer applications as it hasa direct bearing on plant growth and cropping systems sustainability. The study conducted a field experiment during the 2020/2021 cropping season at the Ogongo Campus of the University of Namibia, using a split-plot design for determining the effects of different tillage systems and fertilizer applications on soil nutritional characteristics. The triangular method was applied to the settling method results to determine physical soil texture. The effects of tillage and fertilizer on different soil physical and chemical properties were tested using Parametric Analysis of Variance.&nbsp; The results depicted that a predominant sandy loam characteristic is possessed by the soil. Further, it was shown that tillage effects were statistically significantly different on N (p &lt; 0.001), P (p = 0.013), K (p = 0.004). Similarly, fertilizers influenced soil N, P, and K, with respective p-values of 0.076; &lt;0.001 and 0.044. Interaction between tillage and fertilizers has shown significant statistical differences in all three elements (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium). The study concluded that the adoption of appropriate fertilizer management combined with suitable tillage practice can enhance soil fertility and improve crop production since soil physicochemical properties are influenced by soil tillage and fertilizer practices.</p> 2020-10-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/159 Field Bio-Efficacy of “Brigade-BL” (Beauveria bassiana) an Entomopathogenic Fungi for the Management of Mealy Bugs on Thompson Seedless Grapes 2020-10-17T05:05:27+0530 Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com S. D. Sawant meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com D. S. Yadav meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj Kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>A field bio-efficacy of Brigade-BL (<em>Beauveria bassiana</em>) an entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated against mealy bugs (<em>Meconellicoccus hirsutus</em>) on Thompson Seedless grapes at National Research Centre on Grapes, Manjri, Pune during 2014-15. The experiment was conducted in RBD with five replications on foundation pruning and fruit pruning. Results obtained revealed that application of Brigade-BL @ 5.0 ml/L with two sprayings resulted in reduction of mealy bug colonies upto 67.82% in foundation pruning as compared to control. Likewise, at fruiting pruning, after fifth spray of Brigade-BL @ 5.0 ml/L recorded 75.68% reduction in mealy bug population and increase in fruit yield of&nbsp; 92.44% over control. Similarly, there was no any abnormality and phytotoxic effect observed by spraying Brigade-BL on grapevines. Likewise, Brigade-BL was found compatible with Buprofezin 25 SC chemical insecticide.</p> 2020-10-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/160 Field Bio-Efficacy and Phyto-Toxicity of Vitormone (Azotobacter chroococcum L.) on Growth and Yield Contributing Characters in Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) 2020-10-17T05:03:25+0530 Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com R. K. Yadav meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj Kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>Chilli (<em>Capsicumm annum L.)</em> is one of the important spice and vegetable crop grown in India and World. Hence, the present trial was conducted during 2014-15 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Jhabua (RVSKVV – Gwalior) – 457661 Madhya Pradesh, with a view to assess the bio-efficacy of Vitormone (<em>Azotobactor chroococcum)</em> on chilli hybrid. Vitormone study was undertaken at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/L along with 100% NPK (RDF) and 75% N and 100% PK at KVK Jhabua.&nbsp; Results obtained revealed that spraying of Vitormone @ 2.0 ml/L along with &nbsp;recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) at 35, 55 and 75 days after transplanting significantly increase in plant height (19.77%), number of branches/plant (80.0%), fruit length (81.52%), number of fruits/plant (51.12%) and yield by 43.24% over control and by 4.44% more over RDF. Likewise, spraying of Vitormone @ 2.0 ml/L did not show any phytotoxic effect on chilli crop.&nbsp;</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/161 Bio-Efficacy of Caterpilin (Bacillus thuringiensis var-ukrstati) Against Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) Infesting Pigeon Pea 2020-10-17T06:22:12+0530 Sandeepa Kanitkar meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com V. M. Raut meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com R. K. Patil meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Medha Kulkarni meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com Meghraj Kadam meghrajkadam@kanbiosys.com <p>The pod borer (<em>Helicoverpa armigera</em>) is a key Lepidoptera pest of pigeon pea in Maharashtra and Karnataka state. Bio-efficacy of Caterpilin (<em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> i.e.Bt) alongwith chemical insecticides was evaluated against pod borer during kharif season at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Results compiled revealed that Pop (Chemical insecticide) + Caterpilin (Bt) @ 1.0 g/L treatment to be more promising in controlling larval population of pod borer over control during first spray (49.13 to 66.84%), second spray (48.97 to 59.68%) and third spray (43.33 to 63.98%). Similarly, the above treatment recorded maximum reduction in pod damage (49.54%) and seed damage (50.52%) with increase in yield upto 96.21% over control and 30.44% over chemical (Pop) treatment. Similarly, spraying of Caterpilin (Bt.) did not show any phytotoxic effect on pigeonpea crop.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/172 Chemical Precipitation of Cations from Aqueous Solutions using Waste Sludge from the Solway Process as a Potential Agent 2020-10-17T16:30:21+0530 Halid Junuzović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Amra Selimović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Sabina Begić halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Abdel Đozić halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Ramzija Cvrk halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Melisa Ahmetović halid.junuzovic@untz.ba Hurija Alibašić halid.junuzovic@untz.ba <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: .5in;">Chemical precipitation is a useful conventional process to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this work, a waste sludge from the Solway process was used as a precipitation agent for the precipitation of Cu (II), Ni (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions with an initial concentration of 50 mg/L. The results of the research showed that the waste sludge from the Solway process completely removed Pb (II) ions from the solution in the pH range of 8.39 -11.74, also good efficiency was shown in other cations. The maximum precipitation efficiency for Cu (II) is 99.890% at pH 10.98, Ni (II) 99.940% at pH 11.81, Zn (II) 99.616% at 10.1. Waste sludge is proved to be a good precipitate for cation separation.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology