Effects of Environmental Change on Wildlife Health

  • Sumaya Assanousi Lamma
Keywords: Anthropogenic Stressors, Environmental Change, Health, Immunocompetence, Survival, Wildlife


Effects encompass perhaps not endocrine disruptions parameters and alterations but additionally feature impairments which could result in disease or raise the opportunity for growing a disease, immune suppression and teratogenicity and non-toxic outcomes. Organisms will try to maintain health by resolving and understanding circumstances, like the existence of invading cell replication or microorganisms. However, changes that are accelerated on health and immunocompetence care, which might affect endurance and people viability, can pose pressure. We analyze the effects which vulnerability to outline a system's price also a shifting environment and also for survival can apply on immunocompetence. We deal with the numbers wildlife health could be afflicted with the change and identify shortages in parameters that could arise where.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguirre, A. A., & Tabor, G. M. (2008). Global Factors Driving Emerging Infectious Diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1149(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1428.052

Ankley, G. T., Diamond, S. A., Tietge, J. E., Holcombe, G. W., Jensen, K. M., DeFoe, D. L., & Peterson, R. (2002). Assessment of the Risk of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation to Amphibians. I. Dose-Dependent Induction of Hindlimb Malformations in the Northern Leopard Frog ( Rana pipiens ). Environmental Science & Technology, 36(13), 2853–2858. https://doi.org/10.1021/es011195t

Arlettaz, R., Patthey, P., Baltic, M., Leu, T., Schaub, M., Palme, R., & Jenni-Eiermann, S. (2007). Spreading free-riding snow sports represent a novel serious threat for wildlife. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1614), 1219–1224. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0434

Boon, J. P., Lewis, W. E., Tjoen-A-Choy, M. R., Allchin, C. R., Law, R. J., de Boer, J., ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C. C., & Zegers, B. N. (2002). Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants in Animals Representing Different Trophic Levels of the North Sea Food Web. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(19), 4025–4032. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0158298

Borghesi, L., & Milcarek, C. (2007). Innate versus Adaptive Immunity: A Paradigm Past Its Prime? Cancer Research, 67(9), 3989–3993. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0182

Colegrove, K. M., Gullanda, F. M. D., Naydan, D. K., & Lowenstine, L. J. (2009). Tumor Morphology and Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, p53, and Ki67 in Urogenital Carcinomas of California Sea Lions ( Zalophus californianus ). Veterinary Pathology, 46(4), 642–655. https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.08-VP-0214-C-FL

Davidson, C., Benard, M. F., Shaffer, H. B., Parker, J. M., O’Leary, C., Conlon, J. M., & Rollins-Smith, L. A. (2007). Effects of Chytrid and Carbaryl Exposure on Survival, Growth and Skin Peptide Defenses in Foothill Yellow-legged Frogs. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(5), 1771–1776. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0611947

Deem, S. L., Karesh, W. B., & Weisman, W. (2008). Putting Theory into Practice: Wildlife Health in Conservation. Conservation Biology, 15(5), 1224–1233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2001.00336.x

Kozliak, E. I., & Paca, J. (2012). Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. Toxic/hazardous substances and environmental engineering. Foreword. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 47(7), 919–919. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.667287

Forson, D. D., & Storfer, A. (2006). Atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum. Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2325–2332. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2325:AIRSIT]2.0.CO;2

Gilbertson, M. K., Haffner, G. D., Drouillard, K. G., Albert, A., & Dixon, B. (2003). Immunosuppression in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) induced by pesticide exposure. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 22(1), 101–110.

Griffin, J. F. T. (1989). Stress and immunity: A unifying concept. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 20(3), 263–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(89)90005-6

Häkkinen, J., Pasanen, S., & Kukkonen, J. V. K. (2001). The effects of solar UV-B radiation on embryonic mortality and development in three boreal anurans (Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo). Chemosphere, 44(3), 441–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00295-2

Hall, A. J., Hugunin, K., Deaville, R., Law, R. J., Allchin, C. R., & Jepson, P. D. (2006). The Risk of Infection from Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in the Harbor Porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena ): A Case–Control Approach. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(5), 704–711. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8222

Jepson, P. D., Bennett, P. M., Deaville, R., Allchin, C. R., Baker, J. R., & Law, R. J. (2005). Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded in the united kingdom. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(1), 238. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-663.1

MacLeod, C. D., Santos, M. B., Reid, R. J., Scott, B. E., & Pierce, G. J. (2007). Linking sandeel consumption and the likelihood of starvation in harbour porpoises in the Scottish North Sea: Could climate change mean more starving porpoises? Biology Letters, 3(2), 185–188. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2006.0588

Tait, A. S., Butts, C. L., & Sternberg, E. M. (2008). The role of glucocorticoids and progestins in inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious disease. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 84(4), 924–931. https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0208104

Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J., Collingham, Y. C., Erasmus, B. F. N., de Siqueira, M. F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A. S., Midgley, G. F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Townsend Peterson, A., Phillips, O. L., & Williams, S. E. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427(6970), 145–148.

Ylitalo, G. M., Stein, J. E., Hom, T., Johnson, L. L., Tilbury, K. L., Hall, A. J., Rowles, T., Greig, D., Lowenstine, L. J., & Gulland, F. M. D. (2005). The role of organochlorines in cancer-associated mortality in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(1), 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.08.005

Zuk, M. (2000). Social environment and immunity in male red jungle fowl. Behavioral Ecology, 11(2), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/11.2.146

How to Cite
Sumaya Assanousi Lamma. (2020). Effects of Environmental Change on Wildlife Health. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 50-55. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.5.5