Oil Spills and Their Effects upon the Mediterranean

  • Shadia Said Ali Krair
  • Himeedah Almukhtar Alkabu
Keywords: Oil Spills, Pollution, Human Activities, Mediterranean

Abstract

When liquid petroleum hydrocarbons are released into the environment it leads to a hazardous condition called as Oil Spills. Oil spills have caused tremendous negative effect on the marine ecosystem.  It is an anthropogenic activity which is one of the major sources of pollution. Spill oil has not only created problems for the fishes and plants inhabiting the underwater but has also penetrating the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals. This disaster has created in extinction of the organism and the ability to insulate has been reduced to a great extent. Mediterranean Sea is most vulnerable and the potential effects of an oil spill being far more damaging in this marine region alongside many of its other coastal regions when compared to other comparable geographic regions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adler, E., & Inbar, M. (2007). Shoreline sensitivity to oil spills, the Mediterranean coast of Israel: Assessment and analysis. Ocean & Coastal Management, 50(1–2), 24–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.08.016

Al Shami, A., Harik, G., Alameddine, I., Bruschi, D., Garcia, D. A., & El-Fadel, M. (2017). Risk assessment of oil spills along the Mediterranean coast: A sensitivity analysis of the choice of hazard quantification. Science of The Total Environment, 574, 234–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.064

Alves, T. M., Kokinou, E., Zodiatis, G., Lardner, R., Panagiotakis, C., & Radhakrishnan, H. (2015). Modelling of oil spills in confined maritime basins: The case for early response in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Pollution, 206, 390–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.07.042

Alves, T. M., Kokinou, E., Zodiatis, G., Radhakrishnan, H., Panagiotakis, C., & Lardner, R. (2016). Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 36882. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36882

Bovio, E., Gnavi, G., Prigione, V., Spina, F., Denaro, R., Yakimov, M., Calogero, R., Crisafi, F., & Varese, G. C. (2017). The culturable mycobiota of a Mediterranean marine site after an oil spill: Isolation, identification and potential application in bioremediation. Science of The Total Environment, 576, 310–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.064

Coppini, G., De Dominicis, M., Zodiatis, G., Lardner, R., Pinardi, N., Santoleri, R., Colella, S., Bignami, F., Hayes, D. R., Soloviev, D., Georgiou, G., & Kallos, G. (2011). Hindcast of oil-spill pollution during the Lebanon crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean, July–August 2006. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(1), 140–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.08.021

Cucco, A., Sinerchia, M., Ribotti, A., Olita, A., Fazioli, L., Perilli, A., Sorgente, B., Borghini, M., Schroeder, K., & Sorgente, R. (2012). A high-resolution real-time forecasting system for predicting the fate of oil spills in the Strait of Bonifacio (western Mediterranean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(6), 1186–1200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.03.019

Ferraro, G., Meyer‐Roux, S., Muellenhoff, O., Pavliha, M., Svetak, J., Tarchi, D., & Topouzelis, K. (2009). Long term monitoring of oil spills in European seas. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 30(3), 627–645. https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160802339464

Martínez-Gómez, C., Vethaak, A. D., Hylland, K., Burgeot, T., Köhler, A., Lyons, B. P., Thain, J., Gubbins, M. J., & Davies, I. M. (2010). A guide to toxicity assessment and monitoring effects at lower levels of biological organization following marine oil spills in European waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67(6), 1105–1118. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq017

Google.com. 2020. Image: Two Critical Steps When Dealing With Oil Spills | DHI Reservoir. [online] Available at: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fblog.dhigroup.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2017%2F01%2FSG_Oil_Spills.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fblog.dhigroup.com%2F2017%2F01%2F31%2Ftwo-critical-steps-when-dealing-with-oil-spills%2F&tbnid=JNzNc9qR8DLCDM&vet=12ahUKEwiIv9zDquHqAhVJJisKHRNAAisQMygQegUIARDvAQ..i&docid=8FZlfrEgfEdZTM&w=600&h=250&q=oil%20spills%20&ved=2ahUKEwiIv9zDquHqAhVJJisKHRNAAisQMygQegUIARDvAQ Accessed on: 22 July 2020.

Image: ESA - Satellites plus software equal best-ever Mediterranean heat map. (2020). Available at: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.int%2Fvar%2Fesa%2Fstorage%2Fimages%2Fesa_multimedia%2Fimages%2F2004%2F12%2Fmediterranean_sea_surface_temperature_map%2F10063294-3-eng-GB%2FMediterranean_sea_surface_temperature_map_card_medium.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.int%2FApplications%2FObserving_the_Earth%2FSatellites_plus_software_equal_best-ever_Mediterranean_heat_map&tbnid=34q34QzWAIVlOM&vet=12ahUKEwjoi9LHre Accessed on: 22 July 2020.

Image: Ask the experts: Oil slick sensors for drones?. (2020). Available at: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.controlglobal.com%2Fassets%2FUploads%2F1612-ATE-Fig1-MN.png&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.controlglobal.com%2Farticles%2F2016%2Fask-the-experts-oil-slick-sensors-for-drones%2F&tbnid=tUljeC4XJr3fmM&vet=10CG4QMyg0ahcKEwi4spjMr-HqAhUAAAAAHQAAAAAQAw..i&docid=3VyQWrH1GgHn8M&w=294&h=268&q=oil%20spills%20in%20mediterranean%20sea&hl=en&ved=0CG4QMyg0ahcKEwi4spjMr-HqAhUAAAAAHQAAAAAQAw Accessed on: 22 July 2020.

Image: ESA - Satellites plus software equal best-ever Mediterranean heat map. (2020). Available at: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.int%2Fvar%2Fesa%2Fstorage%2Fimages%2Fesa_multimedia%2Fimages%2F2004%2F12%2Fmediterranean_sea_surface_temperature_map%2F10063294-3-eng-GB%2FMediterranean_sea_surface_temperature_map_card_medium.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.int%2FApplications%2FObserving_the_Earth%2FSatellites_plus_software_equal_best-ever_Mediterranean_heat_map&tbnid=34q34QzWAIVlOM&vet=12ahUKEwjoi9LHre Accessed on: 2

Published
2020-07-26
How to Cite
Shadia Said Ali Krair, & Himeedah Almukhtar Alkabu. (2020). Oil Spills and Their Effects upon the Mediterranean. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(4), 102-107. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.4.12
Section
Articles