Prevalence of Hyponatremia in an Elderly Population: A Case Study
Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder both in hospitalized and outdoor patients. Elderly patients represent a high-risk group for the occurrence of hyponatremia because age is a strong independent risk factor for hyponatremia. Decreased serum sodium concentration is a rather frequent electrolyte disorder in the elderly population because of the presence of factors contributing to increased antidiuretic hormone, the frequent prescription of drugs associated with hyponatremia and also because of other mechanisms such as the “tea and toast” syndrome. Hyponatremia in elderly subjects is mainly caused by drugs (more frequently thiazides and antidepressants), the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) or endocrinopathies; however, hyponatremia is multi-factorial in a significant proportion of patients. Special attention is needed in the elderly population to exclude endocrinopathies as a cause of hyponatremia before establishing the diagnosis of SIAD, which then requires a stepped diagnostic approach to reveal its underlying cause. Hyponatremia is an important and common electrolyte abnormality that can be seen in isolation or, as most often is the case, as a complication of other medical illnesses (eg, heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, pneumonia). The normal serum sodium level in the body is 135-145 mEq/L. Therefore, hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L. This research is based on the prevalence of hyponatremia in an elderly population. This study indicates an increase in patients of hyponatremia above 60 years of age. This study also tells the increase in number of patients having hyponatremia as well as abnormal creatinine levels.
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