Fabrication of Electricity from Wastewater by Utilizing Microbial Fuel Cells: A Review

  • Ms. Bhavya R
  • Ms. Pavithra V
  • Ms. Aarthi S
  • Ms. Dharani K
  • Mr. Prabhu N
Keywords: Biodepollution, Bioelectricity, Microbial fuel cell, Wastewater


Bioelectricity is the electric current produced by anaerobic ingestion of organic substrate by microorganism. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a appliance that transforms energy discharged outcome of oxidation of complicated natural carbon sources that area unit used as substrates by microorganisms to provide voltage thus demonstrating to be associate proficient ways that of viable energy production. The electrons released because of the microbial breakdown is seized to keep up ruthless potential density while not an efficient carbon discharge within system. Usage of microorganisms toward bioremediation is similar to the consequence as of the generation of electricity creates the MFC technology a very beneficial plan which could be smeared in varied segment of industries and agricultural wastes. Although the influences of MFCs in generation of electricity was initially low, modern development within the style elements and dealing has increased ability yield to a major step thus permit application of MFCs in varied sectors as well as waste material ministrations and biodepollution. The accompanying review gives a top-level view concerning the parts, operating, alteration and purpose of MFC technology for numerous analysis and industrial application.


Download data is not yet available.


Moqsud, M. A., Omine, K., Yasufuku, N., Hyodo, M., & Nakata, Y. (2013). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for bioelectricity generation from organic wastes. Waste Management, 33(11), 2465-2469.


Sharma Y, Li B. (2010). The variation of power generation with organic substrates in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs). Bioresour Technol. 101(6), 1844-50.


Angenent LT, Karim K, Al-Dahhan MH, Wrenn BA,Dominguez-Espinosa R.. (2004). Production of bioenergy andbiochemicals from industrial and agricultural wastewater. Trends Biotechno 22(9), 477–485.

Aelterman P, Freguia S, Keller J, VerstraeteW, Rabaey K., (2008).The anode potential regulates bacterial activity in microbial fuel cells. Appl. Microbiol Biotechnol, 78(3), 409–418.

Lovley DR, GiovannoniSJ,White DC, Champine JE, PhillipsEJ, Gorby YA, Goodwin S. (2008). Geobactermetallireducensgen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling thecomplete oxidation of organic compounds to the reductionof iron and other metals. Arch Microbiol., 159(4), 336–344.

Logan BE. (2009). Exoelectrogenic bacteria that powermicrobialfuel cells. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7(5), 375-381.

Rhoads A, Beyenal H, Lewandowski Z. (2005). Microbial fuelcell using anaerobic respiration as an anodic reaction and biomineralized manganese as a cathodic reactant. Environ Sci Technol. 39(12), 4666–4671.

Zhang Y, Mo G, Li X, Zhang W, Zhang J, Yea J, HuangX, Yu C. (2011). A graphene modified anode to improvethe performance of microbial fuel cells. J Power Sources,196(13), 5402–5407.

Zhou M, Chi M, Luo J, He H, Jin T. (2011). An overview ofelectrode materials in microbial fuel cells. J. Power Sources, 196(10), 4427–4435.

Wei J, Liang P, Cao X, Huang X. (2011). Use of inexpensive semicoke and activated carbon as biocathode in microbial fuelcells. Bioresour Technol, 102(22), 10431–10435.

Sangeetha T, Muthukumar M. (2013). Influence of electrodematerial and electrode distance on bioelectricity productionfrom sago-processing wastewater using microbial fuel cell. Environ Prog Sustain Energy, 32(2), 390–395.

Wang H, Ren ZJ. (2013). A comprehensive review of microbial electrochemical systems as a platform technology. Biotechnol Adv, 31(8), 1796–1807.

Pham TH, Jang JK, Chang IS, Kim BH. (2004). Improvement of cathode reaction of a mediatorless microbial fuel cell. J. Microbiol Biotechnol, 14(2), 324–329.

Wei L, Han H, Shen J. (2012).Effectsof cathodic electron acceptorsand potassium ferricyanide concentrations on the performance of microbial fuel cell. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37(17), 12980–12986.

Lovley DR, Holmes DE, Nevin KP. (2004). Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction. Adv Microb Physiol, 49, 219–286.

Lovley DR, Giovannoni SJ, White DC, Champine JE, Phillips EJ, Gorby YA, Goodwin S. (1993). Geobacter metallireducens gen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of iron and other metals. Arch Microbiol.. 159(4), 336–344.

Rotaru A-E Holmes DE, Franks AE, Orellana R, Risso C, Nevin KP. (2011). Geobacter: the microbe electric's physiology, ecology, and practical applications. Adv Microb Physiol, 59, 1–100.

Nevin KP, Richter H, Covalla SF., Johnson JP, Woodard TL, Orloff AL, Jia H, Zhang M. Lovley DR. (2008). Power output and columbic efficiencies from biofilms of Geobactersulfurreducens comparable to mixed community microbial fuel cells. Environ Microbiol 10, 2505–2514.

Gorby YA, Yanina S, McLean JS, Rosso KM, Moyles D, Dohnalkova A, Beveridge TJ, Chang IS, Kim BH, KimKS, et al. (2006). Electrically conductive bacterial nanowiresproduced by Shewanellaoneidensis strain MR-1 and othermicroorganisms. PNAS, 103(30), 11358–11363.

Watson VJ, Logan BE. (2010). Power production in MFCs inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 or mixed cultures. Biotechnol Bioeng, 105(3), 489–498.

Wang H, Ren ZJ. (2013). A comprehensive review of microbialelectrochemical systems as a platform technology. Biotechnol Adv, 31(8), 1796–1807.

Rosenbaum M, He Z, Angenent LT. (2010). Light energy to bioelectricity:photosynthetic microbial fuel cells. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 21,259–264.

Zhao G, Maa F, Wei L, Chua H, Chang CC, Zhang XJ. (2012). Electricity generation from cattle dung using microbialfuel cell technology during anaerobic acidogenesis andthe development of microbial populations. Waste Manage, 32, 1651–1658.

Logan BE, Murano C, Scott K, Gray ND, Head IM. (2005).Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell. Water Res, 39, 942–52.

Rabaey K, Verstraete W. (2005). Microbial fuel cells: novel biotechnology for energy generation. Trends Biotechnol, 23, 291–298.

Feng Y, Wang X, Logan BE, Lee H. (2008). Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Appl Microbiol and Biotechnol, 78, 873-880.

Choi J, Ahn Y. (2013). Continuous electricity generation instacked air cathode microbial fuel cell treating domesticwastewater. J Environ Manage, 130, 146–152.

Min B, Kim JR, Oh SE, Regan JM, Logan BE. (2005). Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cells. Water Res, 39, 4961–4968.

Jiang Y, Ulrich AC, Liu Y. (2013). Coupling bioelectricity generation and oil sands tailings treatment using microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol, 139, 349–354.

Choi J, Liu Y. (2014). Power generation and oil sands processaffectedwater treatment in microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol,169, 581–587.

Ge Z, Zhang F, Grimaud J, Hurst J, He Z. (2013). Long-terminvestigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludgeor digested sludge. Bioresour Technol, 136, 509–514.

Choi J, Ahn Y. (2014). Increased power generation fromprimarysludge in microbial fuel cells coupled with prefermentation. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., 37(12), 2549–2557.

Logroño W, Ramírez G, Recalde C, Echeverría M, Cunachi A. (2015). Bioelectricity generation from vegetables and fruitswastes by using single chamber microbial fuel cells with high and eansoils. Energy Procedia, 75, 2009–2014.

Choi J, Ahn Y. (2015). Enhanced bioelectricity harvestingin microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from bio hydrogen fermentation. Bioresour Technol, 183, 53–60.

Logan B.E, Rabaey K, (2006). Microbial fuel cells methodology and technology pp. 11-17.

Kim J.R., Premier, Lee G.C. (2010). Sustainable wastewater treatment: how might microbial fuel cells contribute. Biotechnoladvances, 286, 871-881.

Liu H, Ramnarayanan R, Logan BE. (2004). Production of electricity duringwastewater treatment using a single chamber microbial fuel cell. Environ Sci Technol, 28, 2281–2285.

Rabaey K, Clauwaert P, Aelterman P, VerstraeteW. (2005). Tubularmicrobial fuel cells for efficient electricity generation. Environ Sci Technol, 39(20), 8077–8082.

Tartakovsky B Guiot SR. (2006).A comparison of air and hydrogen peroxideoxygenated microbial fuel cell reactors. Biotechnol Prog, 22, 2416.

Jang JK, Pham TH, Chang IS, Kang KH, Moon H, Cho KS, et al. (2004). Construction and operation of a novel mediator-and membranelessmicrobial fuel cell. Process Biochem, 39, 1007–1012.

Moon H, Chang IS, Jang JK, Kim BH. (2005). Residence time distribution inmicrobial fuel cell and its influence on COD removal withelectricity generation. Biochem Eng J, 27, 59–65.

Aelterman P, Rabaey K, Pham HT, Boon N, VerstraeteW. (2006). Continuouselectricity generation at high voltages and currents using stacked microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci Technol, 40, 3388–3394.

Stirling JL, Bennetto HP, Delaney GM, Mason JR, Roller SD, TanakaK, et al. (1983). Microbial fuel cells. Biochem Soc Trans, 11, 4513.

Bennetto HP. (1984). Microbial fuel cells. Life Chem Rep, 2, 363–453.

Nevin KP, Lovley DR. (2000). Lack of production of electron-shuttling compounds or solubilization of Fe(III) during reduction ofinsoluble Fe(III) oxide by Geobactermetallireducens. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66, 2248–2251.

Chaudhuri SK, Lovley DR. (2003). Electricity generation by direct oxidation of glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells. Nat Biotechnol, 21, 1229–1232.

RosenbaumM, Schroder U, Scholz F. (2006). Investigation of the electrocatalyticoxidation of formate and ethanol at platinum black under microbialfuel cell conditions. J Solid State Electroche,.10, 872–878.

Ieropoulos I, Greenman J, Melhuish C. (2003). Imitation metabolism: energyautonomy in biologically inspired robots. Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on imitation of animals and artifacts .a. p. 191–194.

Ieropoulos I, Melhuish C, Greenman J. EcoBot-II. (2005). An artificial agentwith a natural metabolism. Adv Robot Syst c., 2, 295–300.

Shantaram A, Beyenal H, Veluchamy RRA, Lewandowski Z. (2005). Wireless sensors powered by microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci Technol, 39, 5037–5042.

Wilkinson S. (2000). “Gastrobots” — benefits and challenges of microbial fuel cells in food powered robot applications. Auton Robot., 9, 99−111.

Chia M. (2002). Aminiaturizedmicrobial fuel cell. Technical digest of solid state sensors and actuatorsworkshop, Hilton Head Island, 59–60

LiuH,Grot S, Logan BE. (2005). Electrochemically assistedmicrobial production of hydrogen from acetate. Environ Sci Tchnol .c. 317–20.

Holzman DC. (2005). Microbe power. Environ Health Persp, 113, A7547.

Habermann W, Pommer EH. (1991). Biological fuelcells with sulphide storage capacity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 35, 128–33.

Rabaey K, Van De Sompel K, Maignien L, Boon N, AeltermanP, Clauwaert P, et al. (2006). Microbial fuel cells for sulfide removal. Environ Sci Technol, 40, 521824.

He Z, Minteer SD, Angenent L. (2005). Electricity generation from artificialwastewater using an up flow microbial fuel cell. Environ Sci Technol, 39,5262–5267.

Kim JR, Min B, Logan BE. (2005). Evaluation of procedures to acclimate a microbial fuel cell for electricity production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 68, 23–30.

Chang IS, Jang JK, Gil GC, Kim M, Kim HJ, Cho BW, et al. (2004). Continuous determination of biochemical oxygen demand using microbial fuelcell type biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron, 19, 607–613.

Chang IS, Moon H, Jang JK, Kim BH. (2005). Improvement of a microbial fuel cell performance as a BOD sensor using respiratory inhibitors. Biosens Bioelectron, 20, 1856–1859.

Moon H, Chang IS, Kang KH, Jang JK, Kim BH. (2004). Improving the dynamic response of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell as a bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. Biotechnol Lett, 26, 1717–1721.

How to Cite
Ms. Bhavya R, Ms. Pavithra V, Ms. Aarthi S, Ms. Dharani K, & Mr. Prabhu N. (2020). Fabrication of Electricity from Wastewater by Utilizing Microbial Fuel Cells: A Review. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.3.1