Factors Affecting the Persistence of Cholera Epidemics in Bibémi (North Cameroon)

  • Moussa Djaouda
  • Zoua Wadoubé
  • Roméo Wakayansam Bouba
  • Moïse Nola
Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, Cholera, Epidemics, Water, Risk Factors

Abstract

The recurrent cholera outbreaks in north Cameroon suggests the existence of hotspot cholera potential reservoirs including polluted surface waters and groundwater. This study investigated water sources, for contamination with Vibrio cholerae, to highlight their role in disease transmission in the cholera endemic areas of Bibémi (north Cameroon). Risk factors of cholera transmission among households were also assessed. The water quality of 15 water points (1 borehole, 8 wells and 6 surface water points) was assessed through commonly used microbiological tests. Also analysed were physicochemical parameters of the water. Results pointed out unsafe water sources (wells and streams) with total coliforms present in all water samples (13-168 CFU/100mL). However, borehole water was negative for total coliforms (0 CFU/100mL) and was qualified for all domestic uses. The results reported the presence of V. cholerae reservoirs along the mayo-Barka course, a stream which water points digged on the dried-up bed are used as drinking water sources in Bibémi. Wells and borehole were negative to V. cholerae. The physico-chemical characteristics of water varied with sampling points. The pH of the water was acidic for most water points; the lower value of temperature was 28.90 °C and the higher was 31.05 °C. The values of electrical conductivity, TDSs and salinity fluctuated from 136.2 to 1308.0 µS/cm, 68.1 to 652.0 mg/l and 67.8 to 650.0 ppm respectively in the water samples.  The mayo-Barka presented the higher level of water mineralization. A survey carried out in the study area showed that the low level of education, poor hygiene, poor management of water sources and the scarcity of sanitation would contribute greatly the appearance and spread of cholera in Bibémi. Considering and improving these risk factors by health authorities would help reduce the incidence of cholera and improve the prevention strategies.

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Published
2020-07-21
How to Cite
Djaouda, M., Wadoubé, Z., Wakayansam Bouba, R., & Nola, M. (2020). Factors Affecting the Persistence of Cholera Epidemics in Bibémi (North Cameroon). International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(4), 70-83. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.4.9
Section
Articles