An Analysis of India's Air Feature and Environmental Injustice

  • Binesh Kumari Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, M.M.H (PG) College, Ghaziabad, INDIA
Keywords: Air Feature, Explanatory Values, Environment Injustice, Variables Dependent


Despite the fact that India has some of the world’s worst levels of air pollution, the link between air pollution and social disadvantages has not been thoroughly investigated. This study combines fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentration data from satellite observations, a global chemical transport model, and ground-based measurements with district-level socio-demographic data from the 2011 Census of India, using a distributive environmental justice paradigm. After controlling for relevant contextual factors and spatial clustering, the goal of the study is to see if annual average PM2.5 concentrations (2010) and recent increases in average PM2.5 concentrations (2010–2016) are unequally distributed among socially disadvantaged populations and household groups. In India, more than 85% of individuals and families live in districts where PM2.5 levels surpass international guidelines. Although PM2.5 concentrations are much greater in more populated districts, primarily in northern India, less urbanized areas, primarily in southern and central India, have recently seen increases. According to multivariable statistical analysis, higher PM2.5 concentrations were found in districts with higher percentages of Scheduled Castes (SCs), young children, and households with poor housing conditions and no toilets; and higher PM2.5 increases were found in less urbanized districts with higher percentages of SCs, females, children, people with disabilities, and households with no toilets. These findings emphasize the need of considering the role of air pollution in amplifying the effects of India's social disadvantages.


Download data is not yet available.


S.K.; Goel, (2014).Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities. Atmos. Environ. 95, 501–510.

M.S. Sharma Socioeconomic Disparities and Air Pollution Exposure: A Global Review. Curr. Environ. Health Rep. 2015, 2, 440–450.

Chowdhury, S.; Dey, S. (2018). Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality. Environ. Int, 91, 283–290.

Press Information Bureau. Delhi and adjoining States asked to submit action plans to control air pollution in Delhi [Internet]. 2016. Available from:

A.M. Shikawat. (2016). Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 3762–3772.

Kumar P, Gulia S, Harrison RM, Khare M. The influence of odd–even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi. Environ Pollut [Internet]. 2017 Jun; 225:20–30.

The Global Burden of Disease: Generating Evidence, Guiding Policy; IHME: Seattle, WA, USA, 2018

Collins, (2012). Geographic and social disparities in exposure to air neurotoxicants at U.S. public schools. Environ. Res. 2018, 161, 580–587.

Chakraborty, J. (2018). Proximity to extremely hazardous substances for people with disabilities: A case study in Houston, Texas. Disabil. Health J.

Smokey Bot [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 1]. Available from:

How to Cite
Kumari, D. B. K. (2020). An Analysis of India’s Air Feature and Environmental Injustice. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(1), 34-41. Retrieved from