Influence of Wetting Additive Based on C12 - C14 Alkyl Ester Sulphate with Essential Oils on the Quality of Nickel Coating
The influence of wetting additive based on C12 - C14 alkyl ester sulfate with essential oils on the quality of nickel coatings is examined in the paper. The additive was tested at different concentrations added to the base electrolyte, taking the following concentrations: the concentration recommended twice lower (C1); lower recommended concentration (C2); upper recommended concentration (C3); the concentration twice higher compared to the lower recommended (C4) and the concentration twice higher compared to the upper recommended (C5). The value of the surface tension of the solution was determined, and the corrosion resistance in the salt chamber was examined. In addition, what is important in the production itself is the visual appearance of the coating, which was determined using the Hull cell test.
The additive has been proven to be effective in reducing the surface solutions, which directly affects the production of nickel coatings of better qulity and aesthetic appearance.
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Watts and sulfate baths were the most commonly used baths in the nickel electrodeposition process. Brighter nickel surfaces are observed in the presence of propar-gyl alcohol, propargyl ethoxylate, and propargyl l sulfate where dull deposits are obtained in the presence of diethylaminopropane during nickel electrodeposition from a Watts bath.
The leveling abilities of additives used in the electrodeposited nickel baths have been found to be dependent on cathodic polarization. The additives that increased cathodic polarization have greater leveling performance, whereas the additives that decrease cathodic polarization lead to negative leveling.
Increases in the temperature and concentration of the organic compound N-allyl quinaldine bromide to 0.1g/dm−3 produce increased leveling with a corresponding improvement in brightness compared to other quaternary salts including N-ethyl quinolone bromide and N-propyl quinoline.
Fine-grained, bright, compact, and smooth nickel electrodeposits are obtained in the presence of saccharin and its derivatives namely pyridine, 3-, and pyridinium 1-propane 3 sulfonate, and are dependent on the inhibiting eﬀects of these additives on the reduction of nickel ions.
Aromatic additives benzene sulfonate, benzenedi-sulpahte, benzenesulﬁnate, and benzenesulfonamide have been used as aromatic brighteners in Watts nickel bath.
The combination of sodium naphthalene 2-sulfonate and acrylamide additive is used for producing bright, smooth electrodeposits of nickel, where they modify both the structure and the surface morphology of the deposits to a signiﬁcant extent.
Saccharin, p-toluene sulfonamide, sodium m-benzene disulfonate, sodium 1, 3,5 napthalene trisulfonate, and O-sulfo benzaldehyde have been described as excellent stress reducers in Watts and sulfate baths for obtaining the desired hardness without tensile stress.
Several organic additives such as coumarin, adiponitrile, saccharin, and 8-quinoline decrease the leveling action at lower pH in both sulfate and sulfamate bath.
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