Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Extract and Fractions of Sida acuta Burm. f. Leaves in Mice and GC-MS Analysis of n-Hexane Fraction
The leaves of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory, anti- plasmodial and anti-microbial activities. The relationship of these bioactivities and immune responses leads to the evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. leaves extract and fractions. This study was done to determine the immunomodulatory activity and chemical study of methanol leave extract and fractions of Sida acuta Burm. f. The immunomodulatory evaluation was done by invivo Delay-Type Hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) in the body and in vitro measurement of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans by the phagocyte polymorphonuclear leucocytes using slide method. Acute toxicity, phytochemical and GC-MS analysis were also performed. The DTHR tested in the blood with T-cells in mice showed that the extract and its fractions caused a delayed hypersensitivity response in 24hrs which was very significant (P ˂ 0.05) in the n-hexane fraction of the extract when compared to the control group at the dose of 100mg/kg. The in vitro studies showed a very significant difference (P ˂ 0.05) in the positive control group (LEVA) at a concentration of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, in crude extract (SrE) at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, n-hexane fraction 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, Ethyl acetate fraction at 200µg/ml and Absolute methanol fraction at 100µg/ml and also have high percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS). The acute toxicity test did not cause clinical signs or death within 24hours post-treatment in all doses tested and the highest dose of 5000mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins, steroids, and cardiac glycosides. GC-MS analysis of fraction with the highest activity was carried out on n-hexane fraction which showed the presence of some compounds like hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1 (hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, 3,4-seco-5alpha-cholestan-3-oic acid,4-hydroxy-4-methyl epsilon-lactone, (4R), 2- pentadecanone,6, 10, 14-trimethyl, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, methyl stearate, cyclopentane tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, cyclopropane butanoic acid, 2-[[2-[[2-[(2-pentylcyclopropyl) methyl]cyclopropyl] methyl] methyl ester, etc. which have known bioactivity as immunomodulation showing that the crude extract and fractions of Sida acuta Burm. f. leaves have an immunostimulatory action and can serve as a drug candidate for immunomodulatory activity.
Achi, K. N. and Ohaeri, O. C. (2015). GC-MS Determination of Bioactive constituents of the Methanolic Fractions of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. BJPR, 5(3): 163-172.
Adesina, D. A., Adefolalu, S. F., Jigam, A.A. and Lawal, B. (2020). Antiplasmodial effect and sub-acute toxicity of alkaloid, flavonoid and Phenolic extracts of sida acuta leaf on plasmodium berghei- infected animals. Journal of Taibaibah University for Science. 14(1).
Aggarwal, B., Sharma, P. and Lamba, H. S.(2020). GC-MS Characterization of bioactive compoundsfrom Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Stem Bark with promising invitro Antiplasmodial activity. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 12 (1): 42-47.
Alagbe, J.O. and Shittu. (2020).Phyto- Nutritional Profiles of Broom Weed (Sida acuta) Leaf Extract. Ann Clin Toxicol. 3(2):1032
Anyim, G.,Akinpelu, B.A., Makinde, A. M., Aderogba, M. A. and Oyedapo, O.O.(2015).Identification of n- hexane fraction Constituents of Archidium ohioense (Schimp. Ex Mull) Extract using GC-MS Technique. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.6 (6):366-375.
Askinase, P.W. and Loveren, M. V. (1983). Delayed Type Hypersensitivity: activation of mast cells by antigen-specific T-cells factors initiates the cascade of cellular interactions. Immunology Today 4 (9):259-264.
Chaplin, D. (2010). Overview of the immune response. Journal of Allergy And Clinical Immunology,125 (2): S3 - S23.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2009.12.980
Doherty, N. S. (1981) Selective effects of immunosuppressive agents against the delayed hypersensitivity response and humoral response to sheep red blood cells in mice. Agents Actions 11(3):237-42 doi: 10.1007/BFO1967620.PMID:7257950.
Fulzele, S. V., Satturwar P.M., Joshi, S.B., Dorle, A. K. (2003). Study of the immunomodulatory activity of Haridradi ghrita in rats. Indian J. pharmacol. 35:51-54.
Ganachari M. S., Kumar, S. and Bhat, K. G. (2004). Effects of Ziziphus jujuba leaves extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils. J. Nat. Remedies 4:47-51.
Isiaka A. O., Avoseh, N., Igile, O.D. (2019). Chemical Constituents, Antinociceptive and Anti inflammatory activities of essential oil of phyllanthus muellerianus. Natural Product Communications, 14:5. Published May 9, 2019.
Jasmeet, K. A., Kumar, S. and Mohanty, A. (2017). Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspect of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvacea used in Indian Traditional Medicines. A Review 75 (4):1-33.
Karou, D., Savadago, A., Canini, A., Yameogo, S., Montesano, C., Simpore, J., Colizzi, V., Traore, A.S. (2005). Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta. African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (12): 1452-1457.
Kumar, S., Gupta, P., Sharma, S., Kumar, D., (2011). A review on immunomodulatory plants. J. Chin. Integr. Med. 9(2): 117-128.
Lima, L. A. R., Johann, S., Cisalpino, P. S., Pimenta, L. P.S., Boaventura, M. A. D. (2O11). Invitro antifungal activity of fatty acid ethyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.- Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paraiscoccidioides brasiliensis. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 44:77-80.
Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of toxicology. 53:275 -287.
Mensah, J. K., Irenyen, J. O., Okhiure, M. O. (2013). Nutritional Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of two wild Aromatic Vegetables from Edo state. J. Nat. Prod. Plants Res. 3 (21):8-14.
Marshall, J., Warrington, R., Watson, W., & Kim, H. (2018). An introduction to immunology and immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(S2).
Nadu, T. (2013). Analysis of essential fatty acid esters of mushroom pleurotus and its antibacterial activity. Asian journal of pharmaceutical and clinical research: 6:1
Neer, E. J. (1995). Heterotrimeric G Proteins: Organizers of transmembrane cell signals.80:249-257.
Nwankpa, P., Eteng, M. U., Oze, G., Nwanjo, H. U. and Ezekwe, S. (2012). Effect of Chromolaena odorata on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress status in Salmonellae typhi infested wistar rats. Annals Biols. Res. 3 (10):4696-4700
Nwamkpa, P., Chukwuemeka, O.G., Uloneme, G.C., Etteh, C.C., Ugwuezumba, P. and Nwosu D. (2015). Phyto nutrient Composition and anti-oxidative Potential of ethanolic leaf extract of wistar albino rats. African Journal of Biotechnology 14(19): 3264-3269.
Nweje, A. P. C.,Idakwoji, P. A., Iserhlenrhien, L. O., Sheneni, V.D. and Momoh T. B. (2019).Laxative effects of Aqueous Extract of Sida acuta leaves in Loperamide- induced Constipation in Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 6 (1):1-7
Ojinnaka, M.C., Nwachukwu K. I.,and Ezediokpu N.M. (2015). The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivity of the seed (fruit) extract of Buchholzia coriacea Engler (capparaceae). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mannage. 19 (14) 795-801.
Owolabi, O. J., Amaechina, F.C., Okoro,M.(2012). Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis on blood glucose level of diabetic rat. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 10(3): 249-254.
Patel, S., Banji, D., Banji O. J. F., Patel, M. M., Shah K. K. (2010). Scrutinizing The Role of Aqueous Extract of Trapa bispinosa as an immunomodulator in Experimental Animals. Int J Res Pharm Sci 1(1):13-19.
Patil,U. S., Jaydeokar, A.V., Bandawane, D.D. (2012).Immunomodulators: A pharmacological review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.;4 Suppl1:30-6.
Shah, A. S. and Juvekar A. R. (2010). Immunostimulatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng Leaves. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 1(4): 450-455.
Sinan, K. I., Etienne, O. K., Stefanusc, A., Mollica, A., Mahomoodally, M. F. (2021). Chemodiversity and biological activity of essential oils from three species from the Euphorbia genus. Flavour Frag. J. 36: 148-158 Doi 10.1002/ffj.3624.
Surender, S., Vinod, N., Sweety, J., Gupta, Y. K. (2008). Evaluation of anti- inflammatory activity of plant lipids containing α-linolenic acid. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 46 (6):453-456.
Udaya prakash, N. K., Ranjithkumar, M., Deepa, S., Sripriya, N., Al- Arfaj, A. A., Bhuvaneswari, S. Zaha, A., Elegbar, R.R., Naika, A. K. S. and Sanaa, K., B. (2016). Fatty acids Analysis, Antioxidant and Biological Activity of Fixed oil of Annona muricata L. Seeds. https:// doi. Org/10.1155/2016/6948098.
Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.