Lethal Effects of Calotropis procera Leaves Extract on Mosquito Larvae

  • Mr. Tanko M. M. Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA
  • Mr. Yakubu M. S. Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA
  • Mohammed A. Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA
Keywords: Larva, Mosquito, Calotropis procera


Calotropis procera, is a medicinal plant that is widely reported to have antibacterial, antiparasitic, larvicidal and insecticidal properties. This study is aimed at evaluating the larvicidal potentials of C. procera on mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant leaves were collected locally and extracted using petroleum ether as solvent. Four varying concentrations were made using dilution method to test larvicidal activity on 4th instar larva of the aforementioned species of mosquito. It was observed that the plant extract was lethal against both species of mosquito. The results also showed that mortality of the mosquito larvae increased as the concentration of the extract increases. Furthermore, probit analysis of the results shows that the median lethal concentration LC50 of C. procera extract on Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are 0.116mg/ml and 0.249 respectively. This means that Culex quinquefasciatus is more susceptible to the plant extracts. It is evident from this study that C. procera has larvicidal properties that can be considered in the production of an affordable plant based larvicide. Since C. procera is known to naturally grow in the wild; it will therefore require lesser resources to be cultivated domestically. We recommend that further studies should be conducted on the plant to explore its full potential.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mr. Tanko M. M., Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA

Head of Parasitology Unit, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology.

Mr. Yakubu M. S., Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA

Lecturer, Department of Biological Science Technology.

Mohammed A., Federal Polytechnic Mubi, NIGERIA

Head of Department and Principal Lecturer Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology


Tiwary, M., Naik, S.N., Dhananjay, K. T., Mittal, P.K. and Yadav, S. (2007). Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum aramatum DC (Rutaceace) against three mosquito vectors. Journal of Vector Borne Disease. 44: 198-204.

World Health Organization (1996). Report of the W.H.O. Informal consultation on the evaluation on the testing of insecticides, CTD/WHO PES/IC/96.1. Geneva. p. 69. In: Anupam, G., Nandita, C. and Goutam, C. (2012). Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 135: 581-598.

Kandaswamy, K., Sengottayan, S. and Arunachalam, G.M. (2012). Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology Research, 110:1261- 1268.

Hill, S. and Connelly, C. R. (2013). Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. University of Florida. UF/ IFAS Extension. EENY457. 1-6.

Klempner, M.S., Unnash, T.R. and Hu, L.T., (2007). Taking a bite out of vector transmitted infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine, 356: 2567-2569.

Singha, S., Siddharthasankar, B. and Goutam, C. (2011). Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminate (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefastciatus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1: 159-164.

Rajmohan, D. and Ramaswamy, M. (2007). Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the leaf extract of a weed plant Ageratina adenophora against two important species of mosquito Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6: 631-638.

Corbel, V., Duchon, S., Zainm, M. and Hougand, J.M. (2004). Dinotefuran: A potential neonicotinoid insecticide against resistant mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology, 41: 712-717.

Prabhu, K., Murugan, K., Nareshkumar, A., Ramasubramanian, N. and Bragadeeswaran, S. (2011). Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against dengue vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1:127-132.

Markouk, M., Bekkouche, K., Larhsini, M., Bousaid, M., Lazrek, H. B. and Jana, M. (2000). Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73: 293-297.

Nazar, S., Ravikumar, S., Prakash, W. G., Syed, A. M. and Suganthi, P. (2009). Screening of Indian Coastal Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2 (3): 24-27.

Pankaj, T. and Anita, S. (2010). Assessment of larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of Four plants against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(1):1 - 6.

Kamaraj, C., Bagavan, A., Elango, G., Abduz Zahir, A., Rajakumar, G., Marimuthu, S., Santhoshkumar, T. and Abdul-Rahuman, A. (2011). Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 134:101-106.

Rajasekaran A. and Duraikannan, G. (2012). Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2: S1578-S1582.

Kumar G, Karthik L, Venkata BR, Kirthi AV, Jayaseelan C, Rahuman AA. Phytochemical composition, mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity of Calotropis procera against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 2012; 28: 7(1):63-9.

Kiseleu, O., Wilson, D. and Stev, s. (2007). Mosquito Larvae http;//stason.org/TULARE/animals/aquaria/food/06-mosquito-larvae.htm/(20, june 2021).

Evans, A.M. (1983). Mosquitos of the Ethiopian Regions II; Anophelini. Oxford University Press, London, 43-106pp.

Harrison, B.A (2005). Field Identification of adult and larval mosquitoes. http://www.rciorutgeers.Edu/2.insects/mosq/life.htm. (16th August 2005)

World Health Organization (2005). Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. World Health Organization Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication, Geneva, W.H.O. Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005.13: 7-29.

Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit Analysis. (3rd ed.). Cambridge University press, London.

Singh R.K, Mittal P.K, Dhiman RC. Laboratory study on larvicidal properties of leaf extract of Calotropis procera (Family-Asclepiadaceae) against mosquito larvae. Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2005; 37(2):109.

Elimam AM, Elmalik KH, Ali FS. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Saudi journal of biological sciences. 2009; 16(2):95-100.

Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Iranshahi M, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd MY. Larvicidal efficacy of latex and extract of Calotropis procera (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of vector borne diseases. 2010; 47(3):185.

Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Mohammad Attaullah, Hikmat Ullah Khan, Baharullah Khattak Evaluation of the larvicidal potential of Calotropis procera plant extract against Culex pipiens Article in International Journal of Mosquito Research ยท ISSN: 2348-5906 CODEN: IJMR 2016; 3(6): 01-05

N.O.M. Ali, F.M.A. El-Rabaa. 2010; European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences14: 925-933 Larvicidal activity of some plant extracts tolarvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

How to Cite
Mr. Tanko M. M., Mr. Yakubu M. S., & Mohammed A. (2021). Lethal Effects of Calotropis procera Leaves Extract on Mosquito Larvae. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 8(4), 100-103. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.4.15