Review on Parkinson’s Disease, a Neurodegenerative Disorder and The Role of Ceruloplasmin Protein in It
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease is becoming major health concern mainly for elder people of age over 60 years. The main cause of PD is permanent loss/death of dopaminergic nerve cells present in brain part called substantia nigra, which is responsible for dopamine synthesis. MAO-B, monoamine oxidase B, regulates dopamine metabolism and increased activity of MAO-B causes dopamine degradation which in turn promotes the accumulation of glutamate and oxidative stress with free radical liberation. Several factors like oxidative stress, free radical formation, increased cholesterol, mitochondrial dysfunction, nitric oxide toxicity, signal-mediated apoptosis, head trauma, and environmental toxins and gene mutations like VPS35, SNCA, EIF4G1, GBA, CHCHD, LRRK2, PINK1, DNAJC13 and SOD2 are associated with PD. Symptoms of PD include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, resting tremors, postural instability and shuffling gait, constipation, sleep problems, fatigue, apathy, loss of smell and taste, excessive sweating, frequent nightmares, dream enacting behaviour, anxiety, depression, daytime drowsiness. In PD, low levels of ceruloplasmin were observed in people with early onset of PD. Ceruloplasmin, a ferroxidase enzyme which is synthesized in liver parenchymal cell, regulates iron metabolism and lower level of which causes iron accumulation in brain which is responsible for the early onset of PD. Levodopa-based preparations, Dopamine agonists, Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, MOA-B inhibitors, Adjunctive therapy, Antiglutamatergics drugs are currently used for the treatment of PD.
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