Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Cosmetics Commonly Sold in Katsina Markets and Their Human Health Risk
Cosmetic product protection is a serious concern because of the presence of heavy metals. Accumulation of these metals affect human body over a time. The study was aimed at assessing the levels of some toxic metals in different cosmetic products sold at different shops and markets in Katsina metropolis. The cosmetic items included nine face powder and nine lipsticks. The cosmetics were digested and analyzed for heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Risk of this metals to the consumer was determine using systematic exposure dosage (SED), margin of safety (MoS), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The range of the concentration in face powder was 0.007-0.624±0.003-1.508 mg/kg. The concentration ranges in lipsticks was 0.012-0.036 ± 0.009-0.036 mg/kg. Lead has the highest concentration in face powder and chromium has the highest concentration range in lipstick, while cadmiun has the least concentration in both face powders and lipsticks. The concentration of all the heavy metals are below permissible limit. The Margin of Safety (MoS) values calculated for different metals were higher than the established safe standard by WHO except for Cr in face powders. The obtained SED values are much lower than PTDI. HQ values were within permissible limit indicating low risk of detrimental effect. HI value is greater than one in face powder and less than one in lipsticks. The carcinogenic risk (CR) estimated are within permissible limit except for Cd.
 Ahmad, I. (2017): Comparative Study of Heavy Metals Content in Cosmetic Products of Different Countries Marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.09.021
 Alam, M. F., Akhtar, M., Muzumder, B., Ferdous, A., Hossain, M. D., Dafader, F. F.,…….Ullah, K. M. (2019): Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Cosmetics Commonly Used in Bangladash and Human Health Risk. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology. 10(2): 8 pages.
 Anhwange, B. A., Agbaji, E.B., Gimba, C.E., and Ajibola, V.O., (2013): Seasonal Varieties in Trace Metals Contents of Some Vegetables Grown on Irrigated Farm Lands along the Bank of River Benue within Makurdi Metropolis. Journal of National Sciences Research, 3, 74 – 82.
 Arora, M., Kiran, B. Rani, S., Rani, A., Kaur, B., and Mittal, N., (2008). Heavy Metal Accumulation in Vegetables Irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chemistry 111, 811- 815.
 Arshad, M., Mehmood, M. Z., Munir, H. S., and Abbasi, A. M. (2020): Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Cosmetic Products and Their Risk Assessments. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 28(2020): 779-790.
 Brandao, J. D. O., O. J. Okonkwo, M. Sehkula, and R. M. Raseleka. (2012): Concentrations of Lead in Cosmetics Commonly used in South Africa. Toxicogical Environment Chemical 94:70–77. doi:10.1080/02772248.2011.633911.
 El-Aziz, R.A., Abbassy, M.M., and Hosny, G. (2017): A Comparative Study on Health Risk Assessments of Some Heavy Metals in Cosmetics Commonly Used in Alexandria, Egypt. International Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, 5 pp. 53-62
 Galanis, A. Karapetsas, A., and Sandaltzopoulous, R. (2009). Metal – Induced Carcinogenesis, Oxidatice Stress and Hypoxia Signalling. Mutation Research, 674(1-2), 31 – 35.
 Ghaderpoori, M., Kamarehie, B., Jafari, A., Alinejad, A. A., Hashempour, Y., Saghi, M. H., … Ferrante, M. (2019). Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Cosmetic Products Sold in Iran: the Monte Carlo simulation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-07423-w
 Hepp, N. 2012. Determination of Total Lead in 400 Lipsticks on the U.S. Market using a Validated Microwave-assisted Digestion, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Method. Journal Cosmetic Sciences 63:159–76.
 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to human. Volume 100C.
 Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2012.
 Idris, M. M., Ibrahim, U., Maryam, M. D., Yusuf, S. D., and Ubana, M. A. (2019): Health Risk Assessment Of Some Cosmetics Sold in Keffi Market, Nasarawa State Nigeria. Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 5(2): 120-128.
 Iwegbue, C. M. A., Bassey, F. I., Tesi, G. O., Onyeloni, S. O., Obi, G., and Martincigh, B. S. (2015): Safety Evaluation of Metal Exposure from Commonly used Moisturizing and Skin-lightening Creams in Nigeria. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 71(3), 484–490. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.01.015
 Karri, V., Schuhmacher, M., Kumar, V. (2016): Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, As and MeHg) as Risk Factors for Cognitive Dysfunction: a General Review ofMetal Mixture Mechanism in Brain. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 48:203–213.
 Kim, H. S., Kim, Y. J., and Seo, Y. R. (2015): An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention. Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20(4), 232–240. doi:10.15430/jcp.2015.20.4.232
 Lim, D. S., Roh, T. H., Kim, M. K., Kwon, Y. C., Choi, S. M., Kwack, S. J., … Lee, B.-M. (2018): Non-cancer, Cancer, and Dermal Sensitization Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Cosmetics. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 81(11), 432–452. doi:10.1080/15287394.2018.1451191
 Mansouri, B., Davari, B., and Mahmoudi, M. (2018): Health risk Assessment of the Concentration of Trace Elements in Cosmetic Products in Sanandaj, Iran. Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research 6(1):21–26
 Mohammadi, M., Riyahi. B. A., Khodabandeh, S. (2014): Determination of Cadmium and Lead Concentration in Cosmetics (sunscreen, lipstick and hair color). Iranian Journal of Health and Environment 6(4):481–490
 Nnorom, I. C. (2011): Trace Metals in Cosmetic Facial Talcum Powders Marketed in Nigeria. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 93(6):1135–1148. doi:10.1080/02772248.2011.577075.
 Nourmoradi, H., Foroghi, M., Farhadkhani, M., Vahid Dastjerdi, M. (2013): Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in frequently used Cosmetic Products in Iran. J Environ Public Health 2013
 Sani A., Gaya M.B., and Abubakar F.A. (2016). Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Cosmetic Products Sold in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Toxicology Reports 3, 866.
 SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety). (2012): The SCCS’s Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation, 8th revision, SCCS/1501/12. https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_commit tees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_s_006.pdf.
 Sharafi, K., Fatahi, N., Yarmohammadi, H., Moradi, M., Dargahi, A. (2017): Determination of Cadmium and Lead Concentrations in Cosmetics (lipstick and hair color) in Kermanshah markets. Journal of Health 8(2):143–150
 Ullah, H., Noreen, S., Fozia, Rehman, A., Waseem, A., Zubair, S., Adnan, M., and WHO (World Health Organization). 2009. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 76, inorganic chromium (III) compounds. http://www.inchem.org/ documents/cicads/cicads/cicad76.pdf.
 Zakaria, A., and Ho, Y. B. (2015): Heavy Metals Contamination in Lipsticks and their Associated Health Risks to Lipstick Consumers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 73:191–195.
Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.