Groundwater Problems Caused By Irrigation with Sewage Effluent

  • Dr. Osama Asanousi Lamma Bani Waleed University, LIBYA
Keywords: Wastewater, contaminants, groundwater, treatment, chemicals, irrigation, sewage, effluent, rivers, lakes


Sewage effluent water is consistently used for the agricultural irrigation in rural and urban region farms. The spread of the potential infectious diseases is the major concern for farm workers and also for city inhabitant when they get exposed to these effluents. They also will affect those people consuming crops developed using effluent water irrigation system, particularly when the farm produce is consumed raw by people or otherwise, the farm yield is brought in that raw condition into the kitchen. Only way of preventing is by making adequate measures to disinfect the effluent. Moreover, the effluent water must meet all the conditions of usual irrigation water parameter needs such as trace elements, sodium adsorption ratio, salt content, and so on. Regrettably, no proper interest taken and awareness paid to curtail sewage irrigation long-term effects on principal groundwater.

The irrigation water is mostly applied during the dry climatic conditions that evaporates quickly. Whereas, the non-biodegradable chemical concentration of the drained water and deep-percolated water goes down to join the groundwater, which may remain at a higher level than the effluent water itself. There are various chemicals included in such effluent water, comprising of various salts, potential pesticide residues, nitrates, and they are usually expected in the farming and irrigated farming. However, the chemicals in the sewage, such as pharmaceuticals, organic, synthetic compounds, by-products of disinfection, and pharmaceutical active endocrine disruptor, chemicals, Fumic acids are mainly known to  be the main disinfection precursor by-products. They are formed as soon as the drainage water joins the drinking-water, which gets chlorinated subsequently. Therefore, the groundwater right under the sewage-irrigated regions finally can become completely unfit for human consumption and drinking. The is the main issue that is raising questions of its accountability and burden, when the sewage water irrigated, joins the groundwater.


Download data is not yet available.


Ansari, F. A., Ravindran, B., Gupta, S. K., Nasr, M. et al., (2019). Techno-economic estimation of wastewater phycoremediation and environmental benefits using Scenedesmus obliquus microalgae. J. Environ. Manage. 2019, 240, 293– 302.

Attila Bai, Zoltán Gabnai, (2021).Opportunities of Circular Economy in a Complex System of Woody Biomass and Municipal Sewage Plants, Forest Biomass - From Trees to Energy, 10.5772/intechopen.90324,

Divya J, Belagali S.L., (2012). “Impact of chemical fertilizers on water quality in selected agricultural areas of Mysore district, Karnataka, India”, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp 1449-1458, 2012.

Fazila Younas, Adnan Mustafa, Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Xiukang Wang, Sadia Younas, Waqas Mohy-Ud-Din, Muhammad Ashir Hameed, Muhammad Mohsin Abrar, Ali Akbar Maitlo, Saima Noreen, Muhammad Mahroz Hussain, (2021).Current and Emerging Adsorbent Technologies for Wastewater Treatment: Trends, Limitations, and Environmental Implications, Water, 10.3390/w13020215, 13, 2, (215),

Jitendra Giri, Anjana Srivastava, SP Pachauri and PC Srivastava, (2014). “Effluents from Paper and Pulp Industries and their Impact on soil properties and chemical composition of plants in Uttarakhand, India”, Journal of Environment and Waste Management, vol. 1 (1), pp 26-32, May 2014

Jolly K.N., A. Islam and A.I. Mustafa, (2012). “Impact of Dyeing Industry Effluent on Soil and Crop”, Universal journal of Environmental Research and Technology, vol. (2), issue 6, pp 560-568, 2012

K. Brindha, K.V. Neena Vaman, K. Srinivasan, M. Sathis Babu, L. Elango, (2014). “Identification of surface water, groundwater interaction by hydro-geo-chemical indicators and assessing its suitability for Drinking and Irrigation purposes in Chennai, southern India”, Appl Water Sci, Vol (4), pp 159-174, 2014

Ladwani Kiran D., Krishna D. Ladwani, Vivek S. Manik and Dilip S. Ramteke, (2012). “Assessment of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Near Coal Mining Area in Gujrat By toxicity characteristics Leaching Procedure”, Int. j. Life Sc. Bt. And Pharm., vol. 1, No. 4, pp 73-80, October 2012

Madeira, M. S., Cardoso, C., Lopes, P. A., Coelho, D. et al., (2017). Microalgae as feed ingredients for livestock production and meat quality: a review. Livest. Sci. 2017, 205, 111– 121.

Mahajan Saroj, (2014). “Comparative study and Chemical analysis of some important macrophytes of Nagchoon Pond of Khandwa District, M.P., India”, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 4(9), pp 27-33, September 2014

Menció, A., Mas-Pla, J., Otero, N., Regàs, O., et al., (2016). Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right, but nothing else?. Sci. Total Environ. 2016, 539, 241– 251.

Naeem Khan, (2018). Natural Ecological Remediation and Reuse of Sewage Water in Agriculture and Its Effects on Plant Health, Sewage, Ivan X. Zhu, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75455. Available from:

NGWA, (2021). Water Table Aquifers, Chapter 14 of the 1999 NGWA Press publication, Ground Water Hydrology for Water Well Contractors. Groundwater | Unconfined or water table aquifers (

Patil P.N., Sawant D.V., Deshmukh R.N., (2012). “Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water- A Review”, International Journal of Env. Sciences, vol. 3, No. 3, pp 1194-1207, 2012

Parvin Zolfaghary, Mahdi Zakerinia, Hossein Kazemi, (2021). A model for the use of urban treated wastewater in agriculture using multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) and geographic information system (GIS), Agricultural Water Management, 10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106490, 243, (106490), (2021).

Satone A.K., J.R. Bajoria, P.V. Tekade and N.P. Mahubansi, (2011). “Monitoring of Drinking water Quality of MIDC of Wardha City, Maharashtra”, Rasayan J. Chem., vol. 4, No. 4, pp 910-913,2011

Shahid A, Malik S, Zhu H, Xu J, Nawaz MZ, Nawaz S, Asraful Alam M, Mehmood MA. (2020), Sci Total Environ. Feb 20;704:135303. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135303. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Singh Gurusimran, Dapinder Deep Singh, prof. S.K. Sharma, (2013). “Effect of polluted surface water on Groundwater: A case study of Budha Nullah”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 5, issue 5, pp 01-08, Mar-Apr 2013

Sousa, J. C. G., Ribeiro, A. R., Barbosa, M. O., Pereira, M. F. R., et al., (2018). A review on environmental monitoring of water, organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines. J. Hazard. Mater. 2018, 344, 146– 162.

Subash Chandra Bose, S. R., Ramakrishnan, B., Megharaj, M., Venkateswarlu, K. et al., (2013). Mixotrophic cyanobacteria and microalgae as distinctive biological agents for organic pollutant degradation. Environ. Int. 2013, 51, 59– 72.

Subash Chandra Bose, S. R., Ramakrishnan, B., Megharaj, M., Venkateswarlu, K. et al., (2013). Mixotrophic cyanobacteria and microalgae as distinctive biological agents for organic pollutant degradation. Environ. Int. 2013, 51, 59– 72.

Wang, Q., Wei, W., Gong, Y., Yu, Q., et al., (2017).Technologies for reducing sludge production in wastewater treatment plants: state of the art. Sci. Total Environ. 2017, 587–588, 510– 521.

How to Cite
Dr. Osama Asanousi Lamma. (2021). Groundwater Problems Caused By Irrigation with Sewage Effluent. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 8(3), 64-70.