Review Article- Parasites: Introduction, Classification, Lifecycle and Relationship with their Hosts

  • Abdulrazzaq Mohammed Hamood University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, IRAQ‎
Keywords: Parasites, lifecycle, classification, host


Parasites are microorganism that need host to continue its lifecycle, some of them need direct life cycle while others needs indirect lifecycle. In this review article the researcher focus on things that related to types of parasites, as well as their lifecycles, and the type of the hosts, and how parasites affect the host and their relationship. The review comes over a wide range of years up to 2020, and the last published researches that are related to the topic of this review. The review discusses briefly the classification of the parasites and classified them into three main classes (groups), which are, Helminthes, Protozoa, and Arthropods. Eventually, the researchers came to a certain conclusions such as parasites are living species that needs host to continue its life cycle, there are many types of hosts depend upon the needs of parasites, there are more than eight million of parasites and their weight ranged from 25 microgram up to 70 grams.


Download data is not yet available.


Van Die I, Cummings RD. Glycans modulate immune responses in helminth infections andallergy. Chem. Immunol. Allergy. 2006; 90: 91–112.

Hokke CH, Fitzpatrick JM, Hoffmann KF. Integrating transcriptome, proteome andglycome analyses of Schistosoma biology. Trends Parasitol. 2007; 23: 165–174.

Nyame AK, Kawar ZS, Cummings RD. Antigenic glycans in parasitic infections:Implications for vaccines and diagnostics. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004; 426: 182–200.

Blasco-Costa I, Poulin R. Parasite life-cycle studies: a plea to resurrect an old parasitological tradition. Journal of Helminthology. 2017; 91: 647–656.

Benesh DP. Autonomy and integration in complex parasite life cycles. Parasitology. 2016; 143: 1824–1846.

Blasco-Costa I, Cutmore SC, Miller TL, Nolan M. J. Molecular approaches to trematode systematics: ‘best practice’ and implications for future study. Systematic Parasitology. 2016; 93: 295–306.

Al-Jahdali MO, El-Said Hassanine RM, El-Said Touliabah H. The life cycle of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) in amphipod and fish hosts from the Red Sea. Journal of Helminthology. 2015; 89: 277–287.

Alcántar-Escalera FJ, Garcia-Varela M, Vázquez-Dominguez E, Pérez-Ponce de León G. Using DNA barcoding to link cystacanths and adults of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus brevis in central Mexico. Molecular Ecology Resources. 2013; 13: 1116–1124.

Alda P, Bonel N, Hechinger RF, Martorelli SR. Maritrema orensense and Maritrema bonaerense (Digenea: Microphallidae): descriptions, life cycles, and comparative morphometric analyses. Journal of Parasitology. 2013; 99: 218–228.

Odening Klaus. Conception and terminology of hosts in parasitology". In Dawes, Ben (ed.). Advances in Parasitology. 14. Academic Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-08-058060-9. 1976.

Bailly Anatole. Abrégé du dictionnaire grec français. Paris: Hachette. ISBN 978-2010035289. OCLC 461974285. 1981.

Bailly, Anatole. "Greek-french dictionary online". Retrieved May 2, 2020.

Leander BS. (1 January 2003). "Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and beta-tubulin". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (1): 345–354. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02284-0. PMID 12656194.

Hegna TA, Legg DA, Møller OS, Van Roy P, Lerosey-Aubril R. The correct authorship of the taxon name 'Arthropoda. 2013; 71(2): 71–74.

Thanukos A. The Arthropod Story, University of California, Berkeley, archived from the original on 2008.

Ødegaard F. How many species of arthropods? Erwin's estimate revised. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2020; 71(4): 583–597.

Thompson, J. N. (1994), The Coevolutionary Process, University of Chicago Press, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-226-79760-1.

Williams DM. Largest", Book of Insect Records, University of Florida, archived from the original 2011.

Caira JN, Jensen K. A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms. Journal of Parasitology. 2014; 100: 373–391.

Cribb TH, Bott NJ, Bray RA, McNamara MKA, Miller TL, Nolan MJ, Cutmore SC. Trematodes of the Great Barrier Reef: emerging patterns of diversity and richness in coral reef fishes. International Journal for Parasitology. 2014; 44: 929–939.

Cribb, TH, Bray RA, Diaz PE, Huston DC, Kudlai O, Martin SB, Yong RQ.-Y, Cutmore S.C. Trematodes of fishes of the Indo-west Pacific: told and untold richness. Systematic Parasitology. 2016; 93: 237–247.

Huston DC, Cutmore SC, Cribb TH. The life-cycle of Gorgocephalus yaaji Bray & Cribb, 2005 (Digenea: Gorgocephalidae) with a review of the first intermediate hosts for the superfamily Lepocreadioidea Odhner, 1905. Systematic Parasitology. 2016; 93: 653–665.

Dianne L, Bollache L, Lagrue C, Franceschi N, Rigaud T. Larval size in acanthocephalan parasites: influence of intraspecific competition and effects on intermediate host behavioural changes. Parasites Vectors. 2012; 5: 1–7.

Jokela J, Dybdahl M, Lively CM. The maintenance of sex, clonal dynamics, and host-parasite coevolution in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails. Am Naturalist. 2009; 174: S43–S53.

Mitta G, Adema CM, Gourbal B, Loker ES, Theron A. Compat snail/schistosome interactions: from field to theory to molecular me. Immunol. 2012; 37: 1–8.

Pawłowski Z. Optimal treatment of cystic echinococcosis. Arch. int. Hidatid. 1997; 32: 167-169.


Setyawan AC, Zuo S, Kania PW, Buchmann K. Endoparasitic helminths in Baltic salmon Salmo salar: ecological implications. Dis Aquat Org. 2019; 135: 193-199.

Zuo S, Kania P, Mehrdana F, Marana M, Buchmann K. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: Molecular and ecological links. Journal of Helmintholog. 2018; 92(1): 81-89. doi:10.1017/S0022149X17000025.

Witek A, Herlyn H, Meyer A, Boell L, Bucher G, et al. EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria. BMC Evol Biol. 2008; 345: 1–11.

Stöver BC, Müller KF. TreeGraph 2: Combining and visualizing evidence from different phylogenetic analyses. BioMed Central Bioinformatics. 2010; 11: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-7

Duvallet C. Data detectives, self-love, and humility: a research parasite’s perspective. GigaScience. 2020; 9: 1–5. doi: 10.1093/gigascience/giz148

Wilson G, Bryan J, Cranston K, et al. Good enough practices in scientific computing. PLoS Comput Biol 2017; 13(6): e1005510.

Koster J, Rahmann S. Snakemake-a scalable bioinformatics ¨ workflow engine. Bioinformatics 2018; 34(20): 3600.

Bolyen E, Rideout JR, Dillon MR, et al. Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2. Nat Biotechnol 2019; 37(8): 852–857.

Research Symbiont Awards. Accessed September 28, 2019.

Duvallet C, Gibbons SM, Gurry T, et al. Meta-analysis of gut microbiome studies identifies disease-specific and shared responses. Nat Commun 2017; 8(1): 1784.

Glass G. Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educ Res 1976; 5(10): 3–8.

Mala-Maria S-B, Gina VS. A NOTE ON THE PRESENCE OF PHILOMETRID FISH PARASITES IN ROMANIA, WITH EMPHASIS ON Philometroides sanguineus (Rudolphi, 1819). AgroLife Scientific Journal. 2020; 9(2): 313-318.

Oțel V. Is Carassius gibelio (Pisces, Cyprinidae) a native or non-native species in Romania? Scientific Annals of the Danube Delta Institute. 2019; 24: 77-84.

Negreiros LP, Tavares-Dias M, Elisei C, Tavares LER, Felipe B, Pereira FB. First description of the male of Philometroides acreanensis and phylogenetic assessment of Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) suggest instability of some taxa. Parasitology Interational. 2019; 69: 30-38.

How to Cite
Abdulrazzaq Mohammed Hamood. (2021). Review Article- Parasites: Introduction, Classification, Lifecycle and Relationship with their Hosts. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 8(2), 141-146.