Kasani beej (Cichorium intybus): Ayurvedic View, Folk View, Phytochemistry and Modern Therapeutic Uses

  • Shailja Choudhary Shuddhi Ayurveda, Jeena Sikho Lifecare Pvt. Ltd.
  • Hemlata Kaurav Shuddhi Ayurveda, Jeena Sikho Lifecare Pvt. Ltd.
  • Gitika Chaudhary Shuddhi Ayurveda, Jeena Sikho Lifecare Pvt. Ltd.
Keywords: Chicory, Hepatoprotective, Antidiabetic, Rasapanchak, Ayurveda

Abstract

Cichorium intybus is commonly known as Chicory, kasani. It is a recognized medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. This plant is a well-known traditional herb used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicinal system to treat variety of diseases ranging from wounds to diabetes. The species is native to the European region (Mediterranean region) but can also grow in the temperate and semi-arid regions. The juice extracted from this plant is used as a traditional remedy to cure uterus cancer and tumors. The plant is well-known for its roots that are used as an additive in coffee as it provides bitterness in taste without the caffeine. It is also reported that the roots of the plant contain 40% inulin and acts as an anti-diabetic agent. Historically, the plant was cultivated by ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, vegetable crop, coffee substitute and also used as animal forage. Cichorium intybus contains various phytochemical constituents mainly sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, inulin flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids terpenoids and many more. The reported pharmacological properties of the C. intybus plant include hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cardiovascular, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antimalarial, anti-allergic and gastroprotective activities. In this review article, the medicinal and ayurvedic importance of C. intybus plant along with its phytochemicals are briefly explained.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Du, J., & Tang, X. L. (2014). Natural products against cancer: A comprehensive bibliometric study of the research projects, publications, patents and drugs. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 10(5), 27.

Vickers, A., & Zollman, C. (1999). Herbal medicine. Bmj, 319(7216), 1050-1053.

Al-Snafi, A. E. (2015). Chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Agropyron repens–A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1(2), 37-41.

Kumar, N., Wani, Z. A., & Dhyani, S. (2015). Ethnobotanical study of the plants used by the local people of Gulmarg and its allied areas, Jammu & Kashmir, India. International Journal of Current Research in Bioscience and Plant Biology, 2(9), 16-23.

Bernhoft, A. (2010). A brief review on bioactive compounds in plants. Bioactive compounds in plants-benefits and risks for man and animals, 50, 11-17.

Ajobiewe, H. F., Ajobiewe, J. O., Egbe, J. O., Ogundeji, A. A., & Umeji, L. C. (2020). Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences.

Wang, Q., & Cui, J. (2011). Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): A review. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(11), 1966-1977.

Street, R. A., Sidana, J., & Prinsloo, G. (2013). Cichorium intybus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.

Cadalen, T., Mörchen, M., Blassiau, C., Clabaut, A., Scheer, I., Hilbert, J. L., ... & Quillet, M. C. (2010). Development of SSR markers and construction of a consensus genetic map for chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Molecular Breeding, 25(4), 699-722.

Judžentienė, A., & Būdienė, J. (2008). Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L.(chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija, 19(2).

Afzal, S., Afzal, N., Awan, M. R., Khan, T. S., Gilani, A., Khanum, R., & Tariq, S. (2009). Ethno-botanical studies from Northern Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 21(1), 52-7.

Abbasi, A. M., Khan, M. A., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Khan, H., Muhammad, N., & Sultana, S. (2009). Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis based on socio-economic documentation. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(8).

Ghaderi, R., Zardast, M., Hosseini, M., Delgir, B., & Hassanpour, M. (2012). Comparison of antibacterial effect of cichorium intybus l. With vancomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and penicillin (in vitro). Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Clin Exp Pharmacol, 2(2), 113.

Kocsis, I. (2003). Effects of chicory on pancreas status of rats in experimental dislipidemia. Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 47(1-4), 143-146.

Ghamarian, A., Abdollahi, M., Su, X., Amiri, A., Ahadi, A., & Nowrouzi, A. (2012). Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(1), 1-9.

Kaskoos, R. A. (2012). Antidiabetic activity of Cichorium intybus L. seeds on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Int Res J Pharm, 3(5), 161-4.

Schumacher, E., Vigh, É., Molnár, V., Kenyeres, P., Fehér, G., Késmárky, G., ... & Garai, J. (2011). Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study. Phytotherapy Research, 25(5), 744-748.

Jurgoński, A., Juśkiewicz, J., Zduńczyk, Z., & Król, B. (2012). Caffeoylquinic acid-rich extract from chicory seeds improves glycemia, atherogenic index, and antioxidant status in rats. Nutrition, 28(3), 300-306.

Ahmad, B., Bawa, S., Siddiqui, A. B., Alam, T., & Khan, S. A. (2002). Components from seeds of Cichorium intybus Linn.

Kirtikar, K. R. (1918). Basu,. BD Indian Medicinal Plants. International Book Distributer, 1038-1063.

Databses GR. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network-(GRIN) [Online Database], National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.2009

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Indian Medicinal Plants. 1935.

Bais, H. P., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2001). Cichorium intybus L–cultivation, processing, utility, value addition and biotechnology, with an emphasis on current status and future prospects. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81(5), 467-484.

US, M. R., Kausar, S. A., Kumar, S. S., & Janarthanam, R. B. (2020). Is Kaasini Plant (Cichorium Intybus L.) Panacea to Modified Life Style Causing Diseases in Traditional Medicine?: A Review. International Medical Journal, 27(1).

Asadbeigi, M., Mohammadi, T., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., Saki, K., Bahmani, M., & Delfan, M. (2014). Traditional effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory diseases and disorders: an ethnobotanical study in the Urmia. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 7, S364-S368.

Van Wyk, B. E., Oudtshoorn, B. V., & Gericke, N. (1997). Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Briza.

Merinero, S., Hilmo, O., & Gauslaa, Y. (2014). Size is a main driver for hydration traits in cyano-and cephalolichens of boreal rainforest canopies. Fungal ecology, 7, 59-66.

Elias, T. S., & Dykeman, P. A. (1990). Edible wild plants: a North American field guide. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc..

Al-Snafi, A. E. (2016). Medical importance of Cichorium intybus–A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 6(3), 41-56.

Zaman, R., & Basar, S. N. (2013). A review article of Beekhe Kasni (Cichorium intybus) its traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Res J Pharm Sci, 2319, 555X.

Hume, D. E., Lyons, T. B., & Hay, R. J. M. (1995). Evaluation of ‘Grasslands Puna’chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in various grass mixtures under sheep grazing. New Zealand journal of agricultural research, 38(3), 317-328.

Katiyar, P., Kumar, A., Mishra, A. K., Dixit, R. K., Kumar, A., Kumar, R., & Gupta, A. K. (2015). Kasni (Cichorium intybus L.) A propitious traditional medicinal herb. Int J Pharmacogn, 8, 368-380.

Munoz, C. L. M. (2004). Spanish medicinal plants: Cichorium intybus L. Boletin de la RealSociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 99, 41-47..

Zaman, R., & Basar, S. N. (2013). A review article of Beekhe Kasni (Cichorium intybus) its traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Res J Pharm Sci, 2319, 555X.

Saxena, R. A. H. U. L., Sulakhiya, K. B., & Rathore, M. A. N. O. J. (2014). Cichorium intibus Linn.: a review of pharmacological profile. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 6(4), 11-15.

Chandra, K., & Jain, S. K. (2016). Therapeutic potential of Cichorium intybus in lifestyle disorders: A review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 9(3), 20-25.

Katiyar, P., Kumar, A., Mishra, A. K., Dixit, R. K., Kumar, A., Kumar, R., & Gupta, A. K. (2015). Kasni (Cichorium intybus L.) A propitious traditional medicinal herb. Int J Pharmacogn, 8, 368-380.

Iyer, S. R. (1994). Indian Medicinal Plants-a compendium of 500 species. Orient Longman, Hyderabad, India.

Munawar, T., Bibi, Y., & Ahmad, F. (2020). Ethnomedicinal Study of Plants used for Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review: Ethnomedicinal study of plants used for Neurodegenerative Diseases. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 57(3), 13-26.

Wilson, R. G., Smith, J. A., & Yonts, C. D. (2004). Chicory root yield and carbohydrate composition is influenced by cultivar selection, planting, and harvest date. Crop Science, 44(3), 748-752.

Shim, S. (2005). Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs.

Peters, A. M., & van Amerongen, A. (1998). Relationship between levels of sesquiterpene lactones in chicory and sensory evaluation. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 123(2), 326-329.

Kokate, C. K., Purohit, A. P., & Gokhale, S. B. (2005). Pharmacognosy Nirali Prakashan. Page no, 6-19.

Nandagopal, S., & Kumari, B. R. (2007). Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-A multipurpose medicinal plant. Advances in Biological Research, 1(1-2), 17-21.

de Kraker, J. W., Franssen, M. C., de Groot, A., König, W. A., & Bouwmeester, H. J. (1998). (+)-Germacrene A biosynthesis: The committed step in the biosynthesis of bitter sesquiterpene lactones in chicory. Plant physiology, 117(4), 1381-1392.

Zaman, R., & Basar, S. N. (2013). A review article of Beekhe Kasni (Cichorium intybus) its traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Res J Pharm Sci, 2319, 555X.

Fathalla, N., Bishr, M., Singab, A. N., & Salama, O. (2015). Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Cichorium intybus L. seeds..

Marcone, M. F., Jahaniaval, F., Aliee, H., & Kakuda, Y. (2003). Chemical characterization of Achyranthes bidentata seed. Food chemistry, 81(1), 7-12.

Plaza, L., de Ancos, B., & Cano, P. M. (2003). Nutritional and health-related compounds in sprouts and seeds of soybean (Glycine max), wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) treated by a new drying method. European Food Research and Technology, 216(2), 138-144.

Ahmed, B., Khan, S., Masood, M. H., & Siddique, A. H. (2008). Anti-hepatotoxic activity of cichotyboside, a sesquiterpene glycoside from the seeds of Cichorium intybus. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 10(3), 218-223.

WenYing, G., & Jin-Gui, L. (2012). Chicory seeds: a potential source of nutrition for food and feed. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 13(2), 1736-1746.

Mulabagal, V., Wang, H., Ngouajio, M., & Nair, M. G. (2009). Characterization and quantification of health beneficial anthocyanins in leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus) varieties. European Food Research and Technology, 230(1), 47-53.

Nørbæk, R., Nielsen, K., & Kondo, T. (2002). Anthocyanins from flowers of Cichorium intybus. Phytochemistry, 60(4), 357-359.

Judžentienė, A., & Būdienė, J. (2008). Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L.(chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija, 19(2).

Abbas, Z. K., Saggu, S., Sakeran, M. I., Zidan, N., Rehman, H., & Ansari, A. A. (2015). Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 22(3), 322-326.

Judžentienė, A., & Būdienė, J. (2008). Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L.(chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija, 19(2).

Juśkiewicz, J., Zduńczyk, Z., Żary-Sikorska, E., Król, B., Milala, J., & Jurgoński, A. (2011). Effect of the dietary polyphenolic fraction of chicory root, peel, seed and leaf extracts on caecal fermentation and blood parameters in rats fed diets containing prebiotic fructans. British journal of nutrition, 105(5), 710-720.

Milala, J., Grzelak, K., Król, B., Juskiewicz, J., & Zdunczyk, Z. (2009). Composition and properties of chicory extracts rich in fructans and polyphenols. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 59(1).

Bischoff, T. A., Kelley, C. J., Karchesy, Y., Laurantos, M., Nguyen-Dinh, P., & Arefi, A. G. (2004). Antimalarial activity of Lactucin and Lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus L. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 95(2-3), 455-457.

Leclercq, E. (1984). Determination of lactucin in roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 283, 441-444.

Kisiel, W., & Zielińska, K. (2001). Guaianolides from Cichorium intybus and structure revision of Cichorium sesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry, 57(4), 523-527.

Pyrek, J. S. (1985). Sesquiterpene lactones of Cichorium intybus and Leontodon autumnalis. Phytochemistry, 24(1), 186-188.

Tousch, D., Lajoix, A. D., Hosy, E., Azay-Milhau, J., Ferrare, K., Jahannault, C., ... & Petit, P. (2008). Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 377(1), 131-135.

Malarz, J., Stojakowska, A., Szneler, E., & Kisiel, W. (2013). A new neolignan glucoside from hairy roots of Cichorium intybus. Phytochemistry Letters, 6(1), 59-61.

Carazzone, C., Mascherpa, D., Gazzani, G., & Papetti, A. (2013). Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 138(2-3), 1062-1071.

Monde, K., Oya, T., Shirata, A., & Takasugi, M. (1990). A guaianolide phytoalexin, cichoralexin, from Cichorium intybus. Phytochemistry, 29(11), 3449-3451.

Wang, Q., & Cui, J. (2011). Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): A review. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(11), 1966-1977.

Munoz, C. L. M. (2004). Spanish medicinal plants: Cichorium intybus L. Boletin de la RealSociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 99, 41-47.

Deshusses, J. (1961). The content of formic acid in roasted coffee, chicory, soluble extracts of coffee and coffee substitutes. Mitteilungen aus dem Gebiete der Lebensmittel-untersuchung un Hygiene= Travaux de chimie alimentaire et d'hygiene, 52, 428-430.

Wani, B., Mohammad, F., Khan, A., Bodha, R., Mohiddin, F., & Hamid, A. (2011). Some herbs mentioned in the holy Quran and Ahadith and their medicinal importance in contemporary times. J Pharm Res, 11, 3888-3891.

Judžentienė, A., & Būdienė, J. (2008). Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L.(chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija, 19(2).

Van Wyk, B. E., Oudtshoorn, B. V., & Gericke, N. (1997). Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Briza.

Sezik, E., Yeşilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., & Tanaka, T. (2001). Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in central Anatolia. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 75(2-3), 95-115.

Ahmed, B., Al-Howiriny, T. A., & Siddiqui, A. B. (2003). Antihepatotoxic activity of seeds of Cichorium intybus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3), 237-240.

Pushparaj, P. N., Low, H. K., Manikandan, J., Tan, B. K. H., & Tan, C. H. (2007). Anti-diabetic effects of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 111(2), 430-434.

EMA, H. (2010). Community herbal monograph on Rosmarinus officinalis L., folium. EMA/HMPC/13633/2009, 15 July.

Judžentienė, A., & Būdienė, J. (2008). Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L.(chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija, 19(2).

Hanlidou, E., Karousou, R., Kleftoyanni, V., & Kokkini, S. (2004). The herbal market of Thessaloniki (N Greece) and its relation to the ethnobotanical tradition. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 91(2-3), 281-299.

Athanasiadou, S., Gray, D., Younie, D., Tzamaloukas, O., Jackson, F., & Kyriazakis, I. (2007). The use of chicory for parasite control in organic ewes and their lambs. Parasitology, 134(2), 299.

Al-Snafi, A. E. (2018). Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 8(8), 32-96.

Nwafor, I. C., Shale, K., & Achilonu, M. C. (2017). Chemical composition and nutritive benefits of chicory (Cichorium intybus) as an ideal complementary and/or alternative livestock feed supplement. The Scientific World Journal, 2017.

Kelly, J. P., Kaufman, D. W., Kelley, K., Rosenberg, L., Anderson, T. E., & Mitchell, A. A. (2005). Recent trends in use of herbal and other natural products. Archives of internal medicine, 165(3), 281-286.

Tewari, N. N. (1991). Some crude drugs: source, substitute and adulterant with special reference to KTM crude drug market. Sachitra Ayurved, 44(4), 284-290.

Shukla, P., & Pawar, R. M. (2012). OA01. 22. Quality aspect and variability observed in physico-chemical characteristics and mineral content of ayurvedic herbo mineral formulations from Indian market. Ancient Science of Life, 32(Suppl 1), S22.

Sunita, G. (1992). Substitute and adulterant plants. Substitute and adulterant plants.

Uniyal, M. R., & Joshi, G. C. (1993). Historical view of the basic principles of the identification of controversial drugs, problems and suggestions. Sachitra Ayurved, 45(7), 531-536.

Saraswathy, A. (2001). Adulterants and substitutes in Ayurveda. Sachitra Ayurved, 54(1), 63-66.

Gupta, A. K. (2003). Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants. Volume 1. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants. Volume 1.

Singh, I. P., Mittal, S., Bhalla, V., Srivastava, V., Singh, K., Chopra, M., ... & Kaur, N. INVITED TALKS Page No.

Afaq, S. H. (1999). A comparative introduction of the Unani and Tibetan medical traditions. Ayur Vijnana, 6, 1-4.

Mitra, S. K., & Kannan, R. (2007). A note on unintentional adulterations in Ayurvedic herbs. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2007(1), 3.

More DB, Giradkar PS. Herbal Drug Adulteration: A Hindrance to the Development of Ayurveda Medicine

Pandey, M. K., Singh, G. N., Sharma, R. K., & Lata, S. (2012). Standardization of Yakrit Plihantak Churna: An ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(1), 171.

Chandra, K., & Jain, S. K. (2016). Therapeutic potential of Cichorium intybus in lifestyle disorders: A review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 9(3), 20-25.

Ahmed, B., Al-Howiriny, T. A., & Siddiqui, A. B. (2003). Antihepatotoxic activity of seeds of Cichorium intybus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3), 237-240.

Najmi, A. K., Pillai, K. K., Pal, S. N., & Aqil, M. (2005). Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity of jigrine against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 97(3), 521-525.

Zafar, R., & Ali, S. M. (1998). Anti-hepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 63(3), 227-231.

Chandra, K., & Jain, S. K. (2016). Therapeutic potential of Cichorium intybus in lifestyle disorders: A review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 9(3), 20-25.

Gazzani, G., Daglia, M., Papetti, A., & Gregotti, C. (2000). In vitro and ex vivo anti-and prooxidant components of Cichorium intybus. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 23(1), 127-133.

Nandagopal, S., & Kumari, B. R. (2007). Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-A multipurpose medicinal plant. Advances in Biological Research, 1(1-2), 17-21.

Rub, R. A., & Sasikumar, S. (2016). Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9, S1569-S1573.

Mares, D., Romagnoli, C., Tosi, B., Andreotti, E., Chillemi, G., & Poli, F. (2005). Chicory extracts from Cichorium intybus L. as potential antifungals. Mycopathologia, 160(1), 85-91.

Petrovic, J., Stanojkovic, A., Comic, L. J., & Curcic, S. (2004). Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus. Fitoterapia, 75(7-8), 737-739.

Bischoff, T. A., Kelley, C. J., Karchesy, Y., Laurantos, M., Nguyen-Dinh, P., & Arefi, A. G. (2004). Antimalarial activity of Lactucin and Lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus L. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 95(2-3), 455-457.

Leclercq, E. (1984). Determination of lactucin in roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 283, 441-444.

Miller, M. C., Duckett, S. K., & Andrae, J. G. (2011). The effect of forage species on performance and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 95(2-3), 188-192.

Foster, J. G., Cassida, K. A., & Turner, K. E. (2011). In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominantly Haemonchus contortus egg population. Veterinary Parasitology, 180(3-4), 298-306.

Gazzani, G., Daglia, M., Papetti, A., & Gregotti, C. (2000). In vitro and ex vivo anti-and prooxidant components of Cichorium intybus. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 23(1), 127-133.

Mehmood, N., Zubaır, M., Rızwan, K., Rasool, N., Shahid, M., & Ahmad, V. U. (2012). Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of cichoriumintybus seeds extract and various organic fractions. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR, 11(4), 1145.

Gürbüz, İ., Üstün, O., Yeşilada, E., Sezik, E., & Akyürek, N. (2002). In vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83(3), 241-244.

Wesołowska, A., Nikiforuk, A., Michalska, K., Kisiel, W., & Chojnacka-Wójcik, E. (2006). Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 107(2), 254-258.

Cavin, C., Delannoy, M., Malnoe, A., Debefve, E., Touché, A., Courtois, D., & Schilter, B. (2005). Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory extract. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 327(3), 742-749.

Muhammad, M., & Yusuf, U. Antibacterial effects of Lavendula angustifolia, a review study.

Hazra, B., Sarkar, R., Bhattacharyya, S., & Roy, P. (2002). Tumour inhibitory activity of chicory root extract against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Fitoterapia, 73(7-8), 730-733.

Lee, K. T., Kim, J. I., Park, H. J., YOO, K. O., HAN, Y. N., & MIYAMOTO, K. I. (2000). Differentiation-inducing effect of magnolialide, a 1β-hydroxyeudesmanolide isolated from Cichorium intybus, on human leukemia cells. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 23(8), 1005-1007.

Cani, P. D., Neyrinck, A. M., Maton, N., & Delzenne, N. M. (2005). Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high‐fat diet: involvement of glucagon‐like peptide‐1. Obesity research, 13(6), 1000-1007.

Urías-Silvas, J. E., Cani, P. D., Delmée, E., Neyrinck, A., López, M. G., & Delzenne, N. M. (2008). Physiological effects of dietary fructans extracted from Agave tequilana Gto. and Dasylirion spp. British Journal of Nutrition, 99(2), 254-261.

Nayeemunnisa, & Rani, M. K. (2003). Cardioprotective effects of Cichorium intybus in ageing myocardium of albino rats. Current Science, 941-943.

Khan, H. A., Asif, M., & Athar, M. (2006). Medicinal plants as potential sources of drugs for cardiovascular diseases traditional and mineral approaches. Hamdard Medicus (Pakistan).

Hardeep, F. M., & Pandey, D. K. (2013). Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of chicory roots in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmacy, 3(1), 211-216.

Ghamarian, A., Abdollahi, M., Su, X., Amiri, A., Ahadi, A., & Nowrouzi, A. (2012). Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(1), 1-9.

Tousch, D., Lajoix, A. D., Hosy, E., Azay-Milhau, J., Ferrare, K., Jahannault, C., ... & Petit, P. (2008). Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 377(1), 131-135.

Schmidt, B. M., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., & Raskin, I. (2007). Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food and chemical toxicology, 45(7), 1131-1139.

Ilaiyaraja N, Khanum F. (2010) Evaluation of antioxidant and toxicological properties of chicory leaves. IJPBA. 1:155-63.

Published
2021-03-25
How to Cite
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, & Gitika Chaudhary. (2021). Kasani beej (Cichorium intybus): Ayurvedic View, Folk View, Phytochemistry and Modern Therapeutic Uses. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 8(2), 114-125. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.14
Section
Articles