A Review on Effect of Climatic Zones on the Milk Production of Holstein Friesian and Jersey Cows
Dairy farming is emerging as commercial enterprise and milk as the part of dietary food but the milk productivity of the cattle varies with the variation in climatic factors. So, breed selection plays imperative role on maintaining productivity and adoptability in different environments. Holstein Friesian and Jersey being the temperate breeds with high milk producing capacities could not perform well on the tropical and sub-tropical region. With proper feeding, Holstein has higher milk yield and low-fat percentage than Jersey. Milk yield varies by 2.58% in Holstein and 2.09% in Jersey cow with the change in climatic factors (minimum temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). In hot areas, both breeds suffer from heat stress showing low feed intake, higher body and rectal temperature, high respiration rates and high heart beats. Holstein has high increase than Jersey in rectal temperature and heart beat by 0.550C and 15.4 inhalations/min respectively which shows Jersey are more heat tolerant than Holstein. It is due to the larger heat dissipating area, short and light hair, lighter body coat and thin fat. Heat stress can be managed by providing shade, nutritious feed and genetic improvements. As the climate change is emerging, it can affect cattle in tropical regions even more in near future. To overcome this future challenge, further research and study must be done for the proper management of Holstein and Jersey in stress condition and heat tolerance breed must be developed by genetic improvement.
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