Impact of Water and Alcoholic Plant Extracts of Hypericum perforatum on Histological and Some Physiological Features in the Liver of Albino Rats
Hypericum perforatum, which is known as St. John’s wort (SJW), is a leafy herb that grows in the open areas of the temperate regions throughout the world. Recent research suggests the effectiveness of this plant in treating some diseases, such as cancer, bacterial and viral diseases, and some inflammation-related disorders, and as a neuroprotective agent and an antioxidant. The current study aimed to investigate the Impact of water and alcoholic plant extracts of H. perforatum on histological and some physiological features in the liver of albino rats. 21 male rats were used in the current study. They were divided into groups; each group contains 7 members of animals. The animals were raised a month ago in the animal house before conducting the study to ensure their suitability to the environment of the animal house. Before the start of the study, an appropriate amount of animal blood was obtained through the caudate vein of rats, in order to evaluate the variables of the physiological study before starting treatment with plant extracts. One of the groups (Group 1) was used as a standard control group, receiving only standard water and feed. The other group (Group 2) was treated with St. John's water extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg/body weight, while the last group (Group 3) was treated with St. John's alcoholic plant extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg/body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic plant extract were prepared for H. perforatum. Histological slides were prepared from the liver of each group of the study as well as, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were evaluated for the rates in each group. Histological examination shows the presence of necrosis in various stages and the presence of Foamy Cells and the occurrence of infiltration of a number of inflammatory cells within the tissue as well as the occurrence of congestion in the central vein and hemorrhage spread throughout the rest of the tissue. We also note the occurrence of necrosis and desquamation of the central vein lining and infiltration of some inflammatory cells in some areas. The effect of treatments on the aminotransferases (AST, ALT) enzymes and the ALP, where appeared as a significant increase of 0.05 in their concentration when comparing the concentrations of each groups before and after treatment with plant extracts. We can conclude that H. perforatum aqueous and alcoholic plant extract can causes mild damages on liver histological features that can be reflected on livers physiological states generally and on the ALT, AST and ALP enzymes specifically.
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