Spirituality and Attitude towards Death among Senior Citizens with Special Reference to Bengaluru, India
Death is an unpredictable and undeniable event that occurs in everyone’s life regardless of age, time, place etc. One of the common experiences for those are unprepared for this reality is Anxiety. The attitude of senior citizens towards death vary from person to person and they adopt different strategies to cope with their anxieties. Spiritual practice is one of the coping strategies adopted by senior citizens. The present study tries to examine the association between spirituality and attitudes towards death among 100 senior citizens ( 65 years and above) in residential houses and in old age homes. Participants were asked to respond to two different questionnaires namely, Death Attitude Profile-Revised developed by Wong, Recker, Gosser (1994) and Spirituality Experience Index- Revised developed by Genia, V (1991) including a 32-item and 23-item respectively. Data was collected during March-April, 2018 by using SPSS software and data were analysed using the statistical tools namely, simple percentages, means, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation, t-Test and ANOVA. The scale had a high level of internal consistency, as determined by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.712. The study concludes that higher the level of spirituality (spiritual openness) lower the level of fear of death. Those with higher level of spirituality avoid thinking and talking about death to be away from anxiety. There is a negative correlation between spirituality and positive dimension of attitude towards death (Escape acceptance) higher the level of spirituality, lower the attitude towards escape acceptance (death as an escape from a painful existence) but there was no correlation between spiritual support and any of the death attitude dimensions.
Borg C, Fagerström C, Balducci C, Burholt V, Ferring D, Weber G, et al. Life satisfaction in 6 European countries: the relationship to health, self-esteem, and social and financial resources among people (aged 65-89) with reduced functional capacity. Geriatr Nurs. 2008; 29(1): 48-57. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.05.002. PMID: 18267177.
Brunton & Greg Scott (2015) Do We Fear Ageing? A Multidimensional Approach to Ageing Anxiety, Educational Gerontology, 41:11, 786-799, DOI:10.1080/03601277.2015.1050870.
Cicirelli v. , fear of death in older adults; predictions from terror managment theory, 1 july 2002.
Cohen AB, Pierce JD, Chambers J, Meade R, Gorvine BJ, Koenig HG. Intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity, belief in the afterlife, death anxiety, and life satisfaction in young Catholics and Protestants. Journal of Research in Personality. 2005; 39(3): 307-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2004.02.005.
Dadfar M and Lester D (2017) "Religiously, Spirituality and Death Anxiety , Austin J Psychiatry Behav Sci - Volume 4 Issue 1:1061.
Depaola, S. J. (2010). Death Anxiety And Attitudes Towardthe Elderly Among Older Adults: The Role Of Gender And Ethnicity. Ncbi Publications , 335-354.
Ehud Bodner, Amit Shrira, et al. (2015) "Anxieties about aging and death and psychological distress: The protective role of emotional complexity" Personality and Individual Differences - Elsevier Ltd. 83 , 91–96.
Ellison CG, Fan D. Daily spiritual experiences and psychological well-being among US adults. Social Indicators Research. 2008; 88(2): 247-71. doi: 10.1007/s11205-007-9187-2.
Erikson, E. H. (Ed.). (1963). Youth: Change and challenge. New York: Basic books.
Genia V (1991) The spiritual experience index: A measure of spiritual maturity, Relig Health. Dec;30(4):337-47. doi: 10.1007/BF00986905.
Gerolimatos LA1, Edelstein BA. (2002) "Predictors of health anxiety among older and young adults", Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Dec;24(12):1998-2008. doi: 10.1017/S1041610212001329. Epub 2012 Jul 27.
Glass, J. C., & Knott, E. S. (1984).Effectiveness Of a Lesson Series on Death and Dying in Changing Adolescents Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Older Adults. Death Education,8(5-6), 299-313.
Harding, S. R. (2007). The Influence Of Religion On Death Anxiety And Death Acceptance. 253-261.
Homan, K., & Boyatzis, C. J. (N.D.).Religiosity And Health-Related Behavior And Attitudes In Older Adults.Psycextra Dataset. DOI:10.1037/E502212008-001.
Hwang, H., Chen, W., & Lin, H. (2005). Evaluation of Life And Death Studies Course On Attitudes Toward Life And Death Among Nursing Students. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(12), 552-560. DOI:10.1016/S1607-551x(09)70207-4.
Lin, A. H. (2003). Factors Related To Attitudes Toward Death Among American And Chinese Older Adults. OMEGA - Journal Of Death And Dying,47(1), 3-23. DOI:10.2190/G66e-F3ud-6rhx-6qqg.
Lu, L., Kao, S., & Hsieh, Y. (2009). Positive Attitudes Toward Older People And Well-Being Among Chinese Community Older Adults. Journal Of Applied Gerontology, 29(5), 622-639. DOI: S10.1177/0733464809343289.
Lyke J. Associations among aspects of meaning in life and death anxiety in young adults. Death studies.2013; 37(5): 471-82. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2011.649939. PMID: 24517566.
Mina Taghiabadi, et al. (2017) " The association between death anxiety with spiritual experiences and life satisfaction in elderly people" , NCBI PUBLICATION March 2017, Volume: 9, Issue: 3, Pages: 3980-3985, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/3980.
Rappaport, H., Fossler, R. J., Bross, L. S., & Gilden, D. (1993). Future Time, Death Anxiety, and Life Purpose among Older Adults. Death Studies, 17(4), 369-379. DOI: 10.1080/07481189308252631.
Rhonda Shaw, J. G. (March 2016). Religion And Spirituality; A Qualitative Study Of Older Adults. Ageing International.
Ritu Rani1, Punam Midha , Ankita Budhiraja (2017) The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) | ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 4, Issue 2, No. 96, DIP: 18.01.195/20170402 ISBN: 978-1-365-84232-0 http://www.ijip.in | January-March, 2017.
Russac, R. J., Gatliff, C., Reece, M., & Spottswood, D. (2007). Death Anxiety Across The Adult Years: An Examination Of Age And Gender Effects. Death Studies, 31(6), 549-561. DOI:10.1080/07481180701356936.
Scott J. Stevens, Pamela E. Cooper, L. Eugene Thomas (1980) , Age Norms for Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, Research Article https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.206. Retrieved on March 23, 2018.
Steven Teven. W (2009) The Influence of Death Attitudes and Attitudes and Knowledge of End of Life Options on Attitudes Towards Physician-Assisted Suicide, OMEGA, Vol. 58(4) 299-311, 2008-2009.
Taghiabadi, M. (N.D.). The Association Between Death Anxiety With Spiritual Experiences And Life Satisfaction In Elderly People. . NCBI Publications .
Thorson, J. A., & Powell, F. C. (1988). Elements Of Death Anxiety And Meanings Of Death. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 44(5), 691-701. DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(198809)44:5<691: Aid-Jclp2270440505>3.0.Co; 2-D.
Yoon, H., Lim, Y., Koh, Y., & Beum, K. (2015).A Study On The Effect Of Spirituality, Social Support, Depression To Death Anxiety Of The Older Adults. Journal Of Community Welfare, 53, 229. DOI:10.15300/Jcw.2015.53.2.229.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.