Review Article: Androgen Hormone and Male Infertility

  • Hana Abdul-Qader Khuder Assistant Lecturer, Collage of Medicine, Ninevah University, IRAQ
Keywords: sperm genesis, male infertility, hormonal imbalances, male reproductive system


Infertility, the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. There are controversial studies about the factors that affect male fertility, the more prominent risky lifestyle influences such as cigarette smoke and consuming alcohol, the present research examined the possible implications of these observations behaviors about sperm genesis, human reproductive hormone, and oxidative profile of blood plasma. Male infertility is a reproductive health condition that arises worldwide as a severe medical and social challenge that affects the affected couples' heavy trauma, mental distress, and psychological stress. Males are confirmed to be the primary causative factor in 50% of the diagnosed cases of infertility. Male infertility may be measured by sperm cell content and quantities, as well as by structure. A description of a wide variety of factors responsible for male infertility is given in the current study. The primary causes are hormonal imbalances, developmental anomalies, physiological & morphological genital disorders, sensitivity to contaminants & pollutants, reactive oxygen species, and smoking. Besides, noise, changing habits, lack of adequate nutrition and diet, addictions, infections, drugs, diseases, and psychiatric issues can often lead to infertility problems that may impact the male reproductive system temporarily or permanently.


Download data is not yet available.


Auger J, Jouannet P: Federation Francaise de CECOS, Evidence for regional differences of semen quality among fertile French men. Hum Reprod 1997; 12; 740–745.

Swan SH, Brazil C, Drobnis EZ, Liu F, Kruse RL, Hatch M, Redmon JB, Wang C, Overstreet JW: Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile US males. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111: 414–420.

Chia VM, Quraishi SM, Devesa SS, Purdue MP, Cook MB, McGlynn A: International trends in the incidence of testicular cancer, 1973–2002. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 1151–1159.

Paasch U, Salzbrunn A, Glander HJ, Plambeck K, Salzbrunn H, Grunewald S, Stucke J, Vierula M, Skakkebæk NE, Jørgensen N: Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig. Int J Androl 2008; 3: 93–102.

Philipov D, Kohler HP: Tempo Effects in the fertility decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia. European J Population 2000; 17(1): 37-60.

Denrose LF, Ezeh AC: Men's influence on the onset kind progress of fertility decline in Ghana, 1998-1999. Population Studies 2005; 59(2): 197-210.

Moultrie T, Timaeus I: The South African fertility decline. Evidence from two censuses and a demographic and health survey. Population Studies 2003; 57(3): 265-283.

Li Y, Lin H, Li Y, Cao J. Association between socio-psycho-behavioral factors and male semen quality: systematic review and meta-analyses. Fertil Steril 2011;95(1):116-23.

Jensen TK, Swan S, Jørgensen N, Toppari J, Redmon B, Punab M, et al. Alcohol and male reproductive health: a cross-sectional study of 8344 healthy men from Europe and the USA. Hum Reprod 2014;29(8):1801-9.

Yang H, Chen Q, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, et al. Lifestyles associated with human semen quality: results from MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China. Medicine 2015;94(28):e1166.

Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Nelson DR, Thomas Jr AJ. Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study. Fertil Steril 2002;78(3):491-9.

Mostafa T, Tawadrous G, Roaia MM, Amer MK, Kader RA, Aziz A. Effect of smoking on seminal plasma ascorbic acid in infertile and fertile males. Andrologia 2006;38(6):221-4.

Mostafa T. Cigarette smoking and male infertility. J Adv Res 2010;1(3):179-86.

Sepaniak S, Forges T, Gerard H, Foliguet B, Bene MC, Monnier-Barbarino P. The influence of cigarette smoking on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation. Toxicology 2006;223(1-2):54-60.

Taha EA, Ez-Aldin AM, Sayed SK, Ghandour NM, Mostafa T. Effect of smoking on sperm vitality, DNA integrity, seminal oxidative stress, zinc in fertile men. Urology 2012;80(4):822-5.

Das SK, Vasudevan DM. Alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Life Sci 2007;81(3):177-87.

Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Alcohol, oxidative stress, and free radical damage. Alcohol Res Health 2003;27(4):277-85.

Maneesh M, Jayalekshmi H. Role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants on pathophysiology of male reproduction. Indian J Clin Biochem 2006;21(2):80-9.

Varshini J, Srinag BS, Kalthur G, Krishnamurthy H, Kumar P, Rao SS, et al. Poor sperm quality and advancing age are associated with increased sperm DNA damage in infertile men. Andrologia 2012;44:642-9.

Ben Abdallah F, Dammak I, Attia H, Hentati B, Ammar‐Keskes L. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in infertile men: correlation with semen parameter. J Clin Lab Anal 2009;23(2):99-104.

Atig F, Kerkeni A, Saad A, Ajina M. Effects of reduced seminal enzymatic antioxidants on sperm DNA fragmentation and semen quality of Tunisian infertile men. J Assist Reprod Genet 2017;34(3):373-81.

Khosrowbeygi A, Zarghami N. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in seminal plasma and their relationship with seminal parameters. BMC Cell Biol 2007;7(1):6.

Shiva M, Gautam AK, Verma Y, Shivgotra V, Doshi H, Kumar S. Association between sperm quality, oxidative stress, and seminal antioxidant activity. Clin Biochem 2011;44(4):319-24.

Benedetti S, Tagliamonte MC, Catalani S, Primiterra M, Canestrari F, De Stefani S, et al. Differences in blood and semen oxidative status in fertile and infertile men, and their relationship with sperm quality. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012;25(3):300-6.

Oborna I, Wojewodka G, De Sanctis JB, Fingerova H, Svobodova M, Brezinova J, et al. Increased lipid peroxidation and abnormal fatty acid profiles in seminal and blood plasma of normozoospermic males from infertile couples. Hum Reprod 2009;25(2):308-16.

Cook JD. Pituitary and gonadal disorders. Professional practice in clinical chemistry: A review and update. AACC, Crystal City, VA, April, 2003.

G R Dohle 1, M Smit, R F A Weber. Androgens and male fertility. World J Urol.2003 Nov;21(5):341-5.

How to Cite
Hana Abdul-Qader Khuder. (2021). Review Article: Androgen Hormone and Male Infertility. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 8(1), 168-174.