Environmental Measurement of Sediment Pollution Level in Rivers

  • Dr. Hanumant Singh Chouhan Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, S.M.C.C. Govt. College, Aburoad- 307026, Rajasthan, INDIA
Keywords: Heavy metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni), Indian River, Pollution, Sedimentation, Water

Abstract

The concentration of heavy metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni) in the Indian River sediments was investigated in this report. Six water and sediment samples were taken from the river following library experiments and field studies in order to determine heavy metal pollution in sediments. The 5-step method for chemical separation has been used to determine the geochemical phases of metals in sediment samples. Geochemical tests such as enriched factor (EF) and enriched factor (EF) are used for objective measurement of the severity of pollution in the sediments. An index of accumulation (Igeo) was used. Statistical studies including approaches such as the study of the association analysis cluster (CA) were also carried out. The findings of the studies revealed that the accumulated organic matter ranges between 1.90 percent and 3.40 percent with an average of 2.50. The samples revealed that at all sampling stages, the concentrations of metals such as calcium, iron, anganese, copper and nickel were below the global average, while the concentration of copper was marginally above the global average. The enriched factor (EF) was determined for the elements revealed to be labelled as non-infected by heavy metals. The Geo-accumulation Index showed that there were uninfected peers of the studied elements. It was concluded, based on the findings of multivariate statistical analysis, that metals such as manganese, copper, iron, nickel and zinc are largely natural and that calcium metals are likely to be of organic origin.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Berkowitz, B.; Dror, I.; Yaron, B., (2008). Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 412 p.

Bowen, H.J.M., (1979). “Environmental Chemistry of the Elements.” Academic, London, New York, Toronto, 333 p. Borja, A.; Valencia, V.; Franco, J.; Muxika, I.; Bald, J.; Belzunce,

M. J.; Solaun, O., (2004). The water framework directive: water alone, or in association with sediment and biota, in determining quality standards. Mar. Pollut. Bull., (1-2): 8- 11 (4 pages).

Caeiro, S.; Costa, M.H.; Ramos, T.B.; Fernandes, F.; Silveira, N.; Coimbra, A.; Medeiros, G.; Painho, M., (2005). Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecol. Indicators, (5): 151-169 (19 pages).

Chen, S.Y.; Lin, J.G., (2001). Bioleaching of heavy metals from sediment: significance pH, Chemosphere, (4): 1093- 1102 (10 pages).

Chester, R.; Hughes, M., (1967). A chemical technique for the separation of ferromanganese minerals, carbonate minerals and adsorbed trace elements from Pelagic sediments. J. Chem. Geo., (2): 242-262 (21 pages).

Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Zacarkim, C.E.; Palacio, S.M.; Obregón, C.L.; Zenatti, D.C.; Galante, R.M., (2005). Removal of heavy metal from polluted river water using aquatic macrophytes Salvinia sp. Brazilian J. Physics., 35(3B): 744-746 (3 pages).

Everitt, B., (1980). “Cluster Analysis”., 2nd edtion. New York,p.601.

Hamed, M.A.; Emara, A.M., (2006). Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. J. Marine Sys., (60): 220–234 (15 pages).

Helling, D., (1990). Sediments and environmental geochemistry. Springer Verlag, New York.

Hernandez, L.; Probst, A.; Probst, J.L.; Ulrich, E., (2003).” Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmospheric contamination, Sci. Total Environ., (312): 195-219 (25 pages).

Izquierdo, C.; Usero, J.; Gracia, I., (1997). Speciation of heavy metals in sediments from salt marshes on the southern Atlantic Coast of Spain, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 34(2): 123-128 (6 pages).

Karbassi, A.R., (1998). Geochemistry of Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, V, Mn, Fe, Al and Ca in sediments of North Western part of the Persian Gulf, Int. J. Environ. Stud., (54): 205–212 (8 pages).

Karbassi, A.R.; Heidari, M., (2015). An investigation on role of salinity, pH and DO on heavy metals elimination throughout estuarial mixture, Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1 (1): 41-46 (6 pages).

Karbassi, A.; Nabi Bidhendi, G.R.; Saeedi, M.; Rastegari, A., (2010). Metals removal during estuarine mixing of Arvand River water with the Persian Gulf water, Central European J. Geosci., 2 (4): 531-536 (6 pages).

Karbasi, A.; Valavi , S., (2010). Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Bamdedj Marsh Sediment (Khuzestan Province) by Muller’s Geochemical Index, J. Environ. Stud., 36(54): 1-10 (10 pages).

Prabu, P.C., (2009). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki River of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops, Elect. J. Environ. Agri. Food Chem., 8 (9): 818-827 (10 pages).

Veerasingam, S.; Raja, P.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Mohan, R.; Sutharsan, P., (2010). Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in coastal sediment along Tamilnadu Coast, India. Carpathian J. Earth Environ. Sci., (5): 5-8 (4 pages).

Yu, K.C.; Tsal, L.J.; Chen, S.H.; Ho, S.T., (2001). Chemical binding of heavy metals in anionic river sediments, Water Res., 35 (17): 4086-4096 (11 pages).

Published
2018-01-31
How to Cite
Dr. Hanumant Singh Chouhan. (2018). Environmental Measurement of Sediment Pollution Level in Rivers. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 5(1), 14-21. Retrieved from https://www.ijrasb.com/ojs/index.php/ojs-ijrasb/article/view/223