Article Review: Virulence Factors of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolates from Iraqi Patients

  • Rana H. Raheema
  • Ban H. Qaddoori
  • Marwa A. Al-Asady
Keywords: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Virulence factors, Antibiotics resistance


The aim objective of this research is a review study of the virulence factors of coagulase-negative staphylococci (Co.N.S) species isolated from Iraqi patients. The world is now facing a major problem between microbes and antibiotics. The most important of these microbes are Co.N.S species and they are one of the opportunistic microorganism and considered one of the causative agent of nosocomial infection, bloodstream infections (especially in neonatal sepsis and catheter-related bloodstream), urinary-tract infections, mastitis, wound infections and ear/eye infection. Where these bacteria are notable by their resistance to various antibiotics by produce β-lactamase, present of efflux-mechanisms pumps, increase thickness of cell well or by horizontal transfer of resistance genes (plasmid) from other bacteria of the same or different species.

The too much use of antibiotics, led to the resistance of microbes to these antibiotics and is the major cause of the current problems of the world, as microbes have the capability to develop mechanisms that allow them to overawed these antibiotics more rapidly and difficult to find choices to these antibiotics.

As well as having an important virulence factor is biofilm (polysaccharide intracellular adhesion) that resists phagocytosis and primarily responsible for chronic infections because of their resistance to phagocytosis and killing due to cellular/ humoral immunity. In addition, having toxin, protease, hemolysins, urease, lipase and catalase help them to colonization/ invading the host tissue and evasion the host immunity.


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How to Cite
Rana H. Raheema, Ban H. Qaddoori, & Marwa A. Al-Asady. (2020). Article Review: Virulence Factors of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolates from Iraqi Patients. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 363-369.