An Overview of DNA Topoisomerase: The Cellular Magicians
During any cellular process that involves DNA, a phenomenon might occur in the DNA double helix, which is known as supercoiling. The most common example of supercoiling is during helicase activity in DNA replication and transcription of DNA, which causes both positive and negative supercoiling on the DNA, and changes it’s topology. Any sort of topological change such as supercoiling, imparts stress in the DNA double helix, and can affect the overall activity of DNA. Hence, the topology must be well regulated inside the cell. DNA Topoisomerase is the main enzyme, which regulates the DNA topology in the cell. In this paper, we focus on the types and mechanism of action of DNA Topoisomerase enzymes found in different genera of living organisms, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. Also we have discussed the pharmacological significances of topoisomerase enzymes as potential drug targets.
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