The Effect of Dietary Protein (Groundnut Cake and Coconut Cake) on the Live Weight Gain, Spermiograms, Gonadal sperm Reserves and Fertility of Boars

  • R. P. Obongekpe
Keywords: Boars, Live Weight Gain, Sperm Quality/ Reserve and Fertility

Abstract

The study investigated the effect of dietary protein (groundnut cake and coconut cake) on the live weight gain, spermiograms, gonadalsperm reserves and fertility of boars. The study was conducted at the Swine unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The university of Uyo was used in this study. It is located in the heart of Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. A total of 18 grower pigs of large white consisting of 15 boars and 3 sows were used for the study. The boars were randomly selected into 3 groups (Ti, T2 and T3)5 of five based on average initial weights (20-25kg) and were tagged appropriately while the sows were randomly placed in 3 group(S1, S2 and S3) of 1 in each group.  Three diets were made for the three treatment conditions. The boars in T1which is the control group were given normal maize fed, boars in T2 which is the first treatment condition were given groundnut cake diet while boars in T3 which is the second treatment condition were given coconut cake. These pigs were fed twice daily and water supplied adlibitium. Finally, the sow in S1 was artificially inseminated with the semen of the Boar in condtion group 1 (T1), S2 was artificially inseminated with the semen of treatment condition 2 (T2) while S3 was artificially inseminated with the semen of treatment condition 3 (T3). During the feeding trial, weekly feed consumption and weight changes were recorded, while weight gain, feed conversion. Result showed a significant difference on the live weight gain of boars between groups (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference on the spermiogenes and gonadal sperm reserves of boars between groups (P < 0.05). Finally, there was no significant difference on the fertility of sows between the treatment conditions (P> 0.05). It was concluded that dietary protein of groundnut cake and coconut cake could completely replace maize as they improve the live weight gain and sperms quality of boars. Implications and recommendations were made from the findings of the study.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adedapo, A. A., Abatan, M. O., Akinloye, A. K., Idowu, S. O. and olorunsogo, O. O. (2003). Morphometric and histopathological studies on the effects of some chromatographic fractions of Phyllanthus amarus and Euphorbia hirta on the male reproductive organs of rats. Journal of Veterinary Science, 4, 181-185.

Aire, T. A. and Ozegbe, P. C. (2007). The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry. Journal of Anatomy, 210, 731-740.

Al-Batshan, H. A., Scheideler, S. E., Black, B. L., Garlich, J. D. and Anderson, K. E. (1994). Duodenal Calcium Uptake, Femur Ash, and Eggshell Quality Decline with Age and Increase Following Molt. Poultry Science, 73, 1590-1596.

Alenyorege B. and Dziwornu, D.G. (2014).Growth performance of dry sows fed diets with groundnut vines; A preliminary study. Proceedings of the 32nd biennial conference of the Ghana animal science association 444-449 Pp.

Alenyorege B., and Donkor, Y. (1998). Effects of period of feeding on grower/finisher pigs in Northern Ghana. Ghana Animal Science Association symposium. August 26-29.Kumasi Ghana 48-56 Pp

Almaguer, B. L., Sulabo, R. C., Liu, Y., Stein, H. H. (2014). Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 2473–2480.

Almeida, F.N., Htoo, J. K., Thomson, J., Stein, H.H. (2013). Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. Journal of Animal Science Biotech, 4, 44–54.

Almeida, F.N., Htoo, J. K., Thomson, J., Stein, H.H. (2014). Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science Biotech, 8, 1594–1602.

Almquist, J. O. and Amann, R. P. (1961). Reproductive capacity of dairy bulls. II. Gonadal and extra-gonadal sperm reserves as determined by direct counts and depletion trials: Dimensions and weight of genitalia Journal of Dairy Science, 44: 1668-1678.

Anderson, J. (2001). The semen of animals and its use for artificial insemination. Greenworld publishers India. Pp 1-57

Ansah, G. A. and Bucklandand, R. B. (1982). Genetic variation in fowl semen cholesterol and phospholipid levels and the relationships of these lipids with fertility of frozen thawed and fresh semen. Poultry Science, 61, 623-637.

Armah, I. N. A., Donkoh, A., Oddoye, E.O., Attoh-Kotoku, V., Afful, E.K. and Obeng, C. (2008).Utilization of Dried Cashew Pulp (DCP) in BroilerChicken and Pig Feeding Systems. Proceedings of 16th Biennial Conferenceof Ghana Society of Animal Production, 5th -8th August, 160-165 Pp

Ayivi, E. (2008)Use of selected Agro-industrial by-products in the feeding systems of pigs. A thesis submitted to the department of animal science, Kwame Nkrumah University of science and technology Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirement of a degree in Master of Science.

Bakst, M. R. (1993). Oviductal sperm storage in poultry: a review. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 5, 595–599.

Bakst, M. R., Long, J. A. (2010). Techniques for semen evaluation, semen storage and fertility determination. 2, 1-113. St. Paul, Minnesota, the Midwest Poultry Federation.

Bearden, H. J., Fuquay, J. W. and Willard, S. T. (2004). Nutritional management. In: Applied Animal Reproduction. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey. 6th edition.

Bennemann, P. E.; Wentz, I. & Bortolozzo, F.P. (2003). Avaliação do Custo de Doses Inseminantes em Centrais de Inseminação Artificial de Suínos em Sistema Aberto. Proceedings of XI Congresso Brasileiro de Veterinários Especialistas em Suínos

Bitto, I. I. and Egbunike, G. (2006). Seasonal variations in sperm production, gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserve in pubertal West African dwarf bucks in their native tropical environment. Livestock Resource and Rural Development, 18: 134-135.

Boone, M. A. and Hughes, B. L. (1969). Starvation and its effect on semen quality. Poultry Science, 48, 1723-1729.

Brouns, F., Edwards, S. A. and English, P. R. (1994).Metabolic effects of fibrous ingredients in pig diets. Animal Production, 58, 467.

Brown, K. I. (1982). Lighting male turkeys and other management factors affecting semen production. Turkeys, 30(4), 21-26.

Brumm, M.C., Miller, P.S., (1996).Response of pigs to space allocation and diets varying in nutrient density. Journal Animal Science, 74, 2730 – 273

Cameron, D. F., Muffly, K. E. and Wazian, S. J. (1993). Cytologic study of the postnatal differentiation of interstitial testis cells of the Japanese quail. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 202, 457–464.

Cecil, H.C. (1984). Effect of dietary protein and light restriction on body weight and semen production of breeder male turkeys. Poultry Science, 63, 1175-1183.

Cecil, H.C. (1986). Effect of light intensity during the breeder period on semen production oCf low weight and normal weight breeder turkeys. Poultry Science, 65, 1897-1904.

Cerolini S, Surai, P. F. Speake, B. K. and Spark, N. H. (2005): Dietary fish and evening primorose oil with vitamin E effects on semen parameters in cockerels. British Poultry Science, 46, 214-222.

Chapin, J. P. (1939). The birds of the Belgian Congo. Part II. Bulletin of American Museum and National History, 75, 1-632.

Cherms, F. L., Stoller, M. G., Macilwraith J. J., Africa K. C. and Halloran, H. R. (1981). Reduction of body weight during growing and holding periods and subsequent semen production and fertility in turkeys. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 21, 1049-1058

Clermont, Y. (1958) Structure de l'épithélium séminal et mode de renouvellement des spermatogonies chez le canard. Archieves Anatomie Microscopie Morphologei. 47, 47-66.

Coffelt, T. A. (1989). Natural crossing of peanut in Virginia. Peanut Science. 16, 46-48.

Davies, D. V., Mann, T. and Rowson, L. E. A. (1957). Effect of nutrition on the onset of male sex homrone activity and sperm formation in monozvgous bull calves. Royal Society Proceedings, (Series. B), 147, 332.

Devendra, C. and Fuller, M.F (1979). Pig production in the Tropics. Oxford University Press. 20-45 Pp

Deviche, P, Hurley, L. L. and Fokidis H. B. (2011). Avian Testicular Structure, Function, and Regulation. In: Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates, Volume 4 (Birds) 27 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

Drucker A. G, and Anderson, S (2004).Economic analysis of animal genetic resources and the use of rural appraisal methods: lessons from south east Mexico. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 2, 77–97

Eckert, J. V. (2008). Digestibility and nutrient retention of perennial peanut and Bermuda grass hays for mature horses. Master's Thesis, Dept. of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Edens, F. W. (2002): Practical applications for selenomethionine: Broiler breeder reproduction. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food industries. Proceedings of 18th Alltech’s Annual Symposium, Ed. T. P. Lyons, and K. A. Jacques, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 29-42.

Edmond, M.S., Arentson, B.E. and Mente, G.A. (1998).Effect of protein levels and space allocations on performance of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal, 12(4), 123 - 134.

English, P.R., Fowler, V.R., Baxter, S. and Smith, B. (1988). The growing and finishing pig: Improving efficiency. Farming Press, Ipswich, England .162- 220 Pp

Epstein, H. (1971). The origin of the domestic animals of Africa (2 volumes). New York: Africana Publishing.

Etches, R. J. (1996). Reproduction in piggery. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. Pp 318 - 328.

Ezekwe, A. G., Udozor, I. J., and Osita, C. O. (2003). Effects of quantitative feed restriction on the semen quality of Nigerian local cocks. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 30, 127-131.

Fanimo, O. A., Oduguwa, O. O., Alade, A. A., Ogunnaike, T. O. and Adesehinwa, A. K. (2003).Growth performance, nutrient digestibility andcarcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed cashew apple waste.

Feitsma, R. Artificial insemination in pigs, research and developments in The Netherlands, a review. (2009). Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 61-71, ISSN 1678-0345.

Foote, R. H. (1978). Factors influencing the quantity and quality of semen harvested from bulls, rams, boars and stallions. Journal of Animal Science, 47, 1-11.

Foote, R. H. (1998). Artificial insemination to cloning. Tracing 50 Years of Research. Ithaca, NY, Pp 231.

Foote, R. H. (2001). The history of artificial insemination: Selected notes and notables. American Society of Animal Science, 1-10.

Foote, R. H. (2002). The history of artificial insemination: Selected notes and notables. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 1-10.

Foster, J. L. (2008).Improving the productivity of livestock with warm-season legumes. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Funston, R. (2005). Nutrition and reproduction interactions. Proceedings, Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle, October 27 and 28, Reno, Nevada pp 147-162.

Gerrits, R.J.; Lunney, J.K.; Johnson, L.A.; Pursel, V.G.; Kraeling, R.R.; Rohrer, G.A.; Dobrinsky, J.R. (2005). Perspectives for artificial insemination and genomics to improve global swine populations. Theriogenology. V.63, p.283 – 299.

Ghonim, A.I.A., Awad A. L., Elkloub K., .Moustafa, M. E. I. (2010).Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Energy and Crude Protein on Semen Quality and Fertility of Domyati Ducks. Egypt Poultry Science, 30, (2) 583-600.

Gonyou, H.W. and Lou, Z. (1999).Effects of eating space and availability of water in feeders on productivity and eating behavior of grower-finisher pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 63(Suppl. 1), 163-164.

Gonzalez-Vega, J. C., Kim, B. G., Htoo, J. K., Lemme, A., Stein, H. H. (2011). Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 3617–3625.

Gordon, I. (2005). Reproductive technologies in farm animals. CABI Publishing UK.

Graham, H. and Aman, P. (1987).The pig as a model in dietary fibre digestion studies. Scandish Joural Gastroentorol., 22 (suppl. 129), 55 – 61

Grieve, G. C., Osbourn, D.F., Gonzales, F. O. (2016) Coconut oil meal in growing and finishing rations for swine. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 43, 257–261.

Grieve, G. C., Osbourn, D.F., Gonzales, F. O. (2016) Coconut oil meal in growing and finishing rations for swine. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 43, 257–261.

Grooves, C. (1981).Ancestors for the pigs: taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus sustenance. Technical Bulletin No.3.RSPS.Canberra: Department of prehistory.

Gunawardana, V.K. (1977) Stages of spermatids in the domestic fowl: a light microscope study using Araldite sections. Journal of Anatomy, 123, 351-360.

Gundogan, M. (2006). Some reproductive parameters and seminal plasma constituents in relation to season in Akkaraman and Awassi rams. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 30, 95-100.

Gunn, M. R., Champion, Z., Casey, M. E., Teal, P., and Casey, P. J. (2008). Testicular and spermatozoan parameters in the pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus). Animal Reproduction Science, 109, 330-342.

Hafez, B. and Hafez, E.S.E. (2000). Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th ed. New York. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA.

Hancock, J.D. (1999).The benefits of pelleted feed on pig performance. Feed Technology. (ABRAVES), Goiânia/GO, setembro, 2003.

Head, S. W., Swetman, T. A., Nagler, M. J. (2009) Studies on deterioration and aflatoxin contamination in copra during storage. Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides. 6, 349–359.

Henry, Y., (1992).Influence of diet composition on feed efficiency and utilization in growing-finishing pigs. World Reference Animal Production 27, 76 - 92.

Hess, R. A. and Franca L. R. (2005). History of sertoli cell discovery. In: Grinswold M., Skimmer M., eds. Sertoli Cell Biology. New York; Academic Press.

Hocking, P. M. (1992). Bilateral testicular asymmetry and supernumerary testes in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). British Poultry Science, 33, 455-460.

Holness, D. H. (1999).Pigs: The Tropical Agriculturalist. G P Maisonneuve Larose, 15 rue Victor-Cousin, 75005 Paris, France.

Hyun, Y., Ellis, M., McKeith, F.K. and Wilson, E.R. (1997).Feed intake pattern of group-housed growing-finishing pigs monitored using a computerized feed intake recording system. Journal Animal Science. 75, 1443-1451.

Jaworski, N. W., Shoulders, J., González-Vega, J. C. and Stein, H. H. (2014). Effects of using copra meal, palm kernel expellers, or palm kernel meal in diets for weanling pigs. Animal Science, 30, 243–251.

Jin, L., Reynolds,L. P. Redmer, D. A. , Caton, J. S. , and Crenshaw, J. D. (1994). Effects of dietary fiber on intestinal growth, cell proliferation, and morphology in growing pigs. Journal Animal Science, 72, 2270-2278.

Johnson, R.W. (1997).Inhibitions of growth in the immunologically challenged. Journal of Animal Science, 63(Suppl. 1):163-164.

Kass, M. L., Van Soest, P. J., Pond, W. G., Lewis, B. and McDowell. R. E. (1980). Utilization of dietary fiber from alfalfa by growing swine. I. Apparent digestibility of diet components in specific segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Animal Science, 50, 175-191.

Kempenaers, B., Peer, K., Vermeirssen, E. L. M., and Robertson, R. J. (2002). Testis size and asymmetry in the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor: a test of the compensation hypothesis. Avian Science, 2, 115-122.

King‟ori, A. M. (2011). Review of the factors that influence egg fertility and hatchability in poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(6), 483-492.

Kirby, J. D., Tressler, C. J. and Kirby, Y. K. (1998). Evaluation of the duration of sperm fertilizing ability in five lines of commercial broiler breeder and Delaware cross males. Poultry Science, 77, 1688-1694.

Lake, P. E. (1971).The male in reproduction. In: Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl. D.J. Bell and B.M. Freeman (eds.). (3) Pp 1411-1447.

Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B. (2005). Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows. Theriogenology. Vol.63, p. 500–513.

Langlais, J., and D. A. Roberts, (1985). A molecular membrane model of spermcapacitation and the acrosome reaction of mammalian spermatozoa. Gamete Research, 12, 183-224.

Lekule, A. Homb, O. & Kategile, R. (2016) Coconut oil meal in growing and finishing rations for swine. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 33, 57–61.

Ligon, J. D. (1997). A single functional testis as a unique proximate mechanism promoting sex role reversal in coucals. Auk, 114, 800-801.

Lopez, J., Jesse, G.W., Becker, B.A., Ellersieck, M.R., (1991).Effects of temperature in the performance of finishing swine: II. Effects of a cold, diurnal temperature on average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Journal Animal Science 69, 1850 - 1855.

Madekurozwa, M. C., Chabvepi, T. S., Matema, S., and Teerds, K. J. (2002). Relationship between seasonal changes in spermatogenesis in the juvenile ostrich (Stuthio camelus) and the presence of the LH receptor and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Reproduction, 123, 735-742.

Manu, F., Okai, D. B., Boateng, M., and Frimpong, Y. O. (2015). Nutrient composition, pest and microbial status and effects of discarded biscuits on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and economic profiles of growing-finishing pigs. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 15(4), 10241-10254.

Martínez, E.A.; Vazquez, J.M.; Roca, J. (2001). Deep intrauterine insemination and embryo transfer in pigs. Reproduction, vol. 58(Suppl), pp.301-311.

Mason, I. L, (1988). A world dictionary of livestock breeds, types and varieties, 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International Journal of Animal Science, 29, 103 - 109.

Mavromichalis, I. (2006).Applied Nutrition for Young Pigs. Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, UK. 1 – 46, 97.Pp

Maynard, L. A. and Loosli, J. K. (1969).Animal Nutrition.6th Edition. McGraw Hill Book Company. New York, U.S.A. 23 Pp

McDonald, P., Edwards, R. R., Greenhalgh, J.F.D. and Morgan, C.A.(2002).Animal Nutrition, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, Essex, U.K. 201-31.Pp

McLachlan, R. I., Wreford, N. G., O‟Donnell L., Kretser D. M., and Robertson D. M. (1996). The endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis: independent roles for testosterone and FSH. Journal of Endocrinology, 148, 1–9.

Melesse, A., Getye, Y., Berihun, K. and Banerjee, S. (2013) Effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal on growth performance, carcass traits and some serum iochemical parameters of Koekoek chickens. Livestock Sciences. 157(2-3), 498-505.

Merila, J. and Sheldon, B. C. (1999). Testis size variation in the greenfinch, Carduelis chloris: relevance for some recent models of sexual selection. Behaviour, Ecology and Sociobiology, 45, 115-123.

Morrell, J. M. (2011). Artificial Insemination: Current and future trends, Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals, Dr. Milad Manafi (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-312-5, InTech, Available fromhttp://www.intechopen.com/books/artificial-insemination-in-farm-animals/artificial-insemination-current-andfuture-trends

Muffly, K. E., Nazian, S. J. and Cameron, D. F. (1994). Biology of Reproduction, 51, 158–166.

Muirhead, M.R. (1989).Factors affecting efficient growth rate in the feeding pig. Journal of Animal Science, 29, 103 - 109.

Myer, B., Lori W., Juliet E., Dennis H., Ann B., and Clay O. (2010). Perennial peanut: forage nutritional composition and feeding value. UF-IFAS, EDIS Publ. No. AN234, FL Coop. Ext. Ser., University of Florida, Gainesville.

Nakagawa, T., Nabeshima, Y. and Yoshida, S. (2007). Functional identification of the actual and potential stem cell compartments in mouse. Developmental Cell, 12(2), 195-206.

Nissen, H. P. and Kreysel, H. W. (1983). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to spermmotility. Andrologia, 15, 264-269.

Noblet, J. and Le Goff, G. (2001). Effect of dietary fibre on the energy value of feeds for pigs. Anim. Feed Science Technology, 90, 35-52.

Noirault J., Brillard J. P. and Baks, M. R. (2006). Spermatogenesis in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): Quantitative approach in mature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods. Theriogenology, 65, 845 – 859.

NRC (2012) . Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th edition. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

O‟Donnell, L., McLachlan, R. I., Wreford, N. G. and Robertson, D. M. (1994). Endocrinology, 135, 2608 - 2614.

Oatley M. and Brinster R. L. (2006). Spermatogonial Stem Cells. Methods of Enzymology, 419, 259-282.

Obidi, J. A., Onyeanusi, B. I., Rekwot, P. I., Ayo, J. O. and Dzenda, T. (2008). Seasonal variations in seminal characteristics of shikabrown breeder cocks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7(12), 1219-1223.

Obidi, J. A., Onyeanusi, B. I., Rekwot, P. I., Ayo, J. O. and Dzenda, T. (2008). Seasonal variations in seminal characteristics of shikabrown breeder cocks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7(12), 1219-1223.

Ogawa T., Ohnura M. and Onbo K. (2005). The Niche for Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Mammalian Testis. International Journal of Hematology, 82, (5) 381-385.

Okai, D. B. (1998). Alternative Feed Resources for Pigs in Ghana. De Graft Graphics and publications Kumasi, Ghana.

Okai, D.B., and Bonsi, M.L.K. (1989).Pig production. In: Poultry and Pig Production Handbook for Ghanaian Farmers. CITA Press, Kumasi. 52-55 Pp.

Ortavant, R. (1954). Etude des generations spermatogoniales chez le belier. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Memoires de la Biologie, 148, 1958-1961.

Osei, J. (2013).Epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae resistance and prevailing conditions in pig farms in Ashanti region, Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi).

Otchere, E. O., Karbo, N., Bruce, J., Addo-Kwafo, A., Osei-Samoah, A., Miller, D. Clottey, V. A. and Alenyorege, B. (1999).Livestock Systems DiagnosticSurvey Lawra District Upper West Region, Ghana. Technical report AnimalResearch Institute (CSIR) 19 Pp

Pana, C., Stoica, I., Dregotoiu, D., Misclosanu, E .P. and Stanescu, M. (2000). Influence of quantitative and qualitative feed restriction on sperm quality and fecundility of broiler breeder males. Book of Abstracts of the 14th International Congress, Animal Reproduction Stockholm Sweden, 1, 89-95.

Papazyan,T. T., Lyons, M. P., Mezes, M. and Surai, P. F. (2006). Selenium in Poultry Nutrition -Effects on Fertility and Hatchability. Praxis Veterinaria. 54 (1-2), 85-102.

Perry, E. J. (1960). The Artificial Insemination of Farm Animals. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey.

Pond, W.G. and Maner, J. H. (1974).Swine Production in Temperate and Tropical Production Handbook for Ghanaian Farmers. CITA Press, Kumasi. 52-55 Pp

Rahjan, S. K. (2001).Animal Nutrition in the tropics. 5th Edition. Published by Vikas Publishing House, PVT Ltd 576, Masjid Road Jang Pura, New Delhi-110014. 204-455.Pp

Reddy, P.S. (1988).Groundnut, Publication and information division Indian council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anushandan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi.

Reddy, R. P. (1995). Artificial insemination of broilers: economic and management implications. In: Bakst MR, Wishart GJ (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Artificial Insemination of Poultry. Champaign, IL: Poultry Science Association, 73-89.

Rekwot, P. I. (2002). Artificial Insemination in poultry. Poultry production in Njgeria. A training manual on National Training Workshop on Poultry Production in Nigeria held 1-6 September 2002, Shika, Zaria, Nigeria. Published by the National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika, Zaria, Nigeria.

Rekwot, P. I., Oyedipe, E. O. and Ehoche, O. W. (1994). The effects of feed restriction and realimentation on the growth and reproductive function of Bokoloji Bulls. Theriogenology, 42, 287-295.

Revell, D.K. and Williams, I.H. (1993).A review: physiological control and right 2008, VSN International.

RIM (1992). Nigerian National Livestock Resource Survey (6 volumes) Report by Resource Management Limited (RIM) to FDL& PCS, Abuja, Nigeria. Road, Jangpura, New Delhi-110014. 755-850 Pp

Saittagaroon S, Kawakishi S, Namiki M. (2013). Characterisation of polysaccharides of copra meal. Journal of Science Food Agriculture, 34, 855–860.

Samson A. S. (2011) Heat treatment of coconut meats and coconut meal. Journal of Science Food Agriculture, 22, 312–316.

Schell, T.C., Lindemann, M. D., Kornegay, E. T., Blodgett, D.J. (2016). Effects of feeding aflatoxin-contaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver function, and mineral metabolism. Journal of Animal Science. 71, 1209–1218.

Senger, P. L. (2003). Pathways to pregnancy and Parturition. (99164-6332) 2nd Ed. Pullman.

Serres, H. (1992).Manuel of pig production in the Tropics. Published by C.A.B International, Walling, U.K. 16-17

Setchell, B. P. (1982) Spermatogenesis and spermatozoa. In Reproduction in Mammals; Germ Cells and Fertilisation, pp. 63-101. Eds C. R. Austin and R. V. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sexton, T. J. (1974). Oxidative and glycolytic activity of chicken and turkey spermatozoa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 48, 39–65.

Sexton, T. J. (1979). Possible commercial method of freezing chicken semen. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 55, 1-7.

Sexton, T. J. (1981). Development of a commercial method for freezing turkey semen: 1. Effect of pre-freeze techniques on the fertility of frozen and frozen-thawed semen. Poultry Science, 60, 1567–1572.

Sexton, T. J. (1986). Effect of dietary protein and season on fertility of turkey semen stored 18 hours at 50oC. Poultry Science, 65, 604-604.

Son, A.R., Shin, S. Y., Kim, B.G. (2013). Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and cassava root fed to growing pigs. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science, 26, 1609–1613.

Sotirov, L., Dimitrov, S. and Jeliazkov, E. (2002). Semen lysozyme levels and semen quality in Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) fed with various dietary protein levels. Revue de Médicine Véterinaire, 153(12), 815-818.

Soyatech . Soya and oilseed bluebook. Southwest Harbor: Soyatech LLC; 2012.

Speake, B. K., Murray, A. M. B. and Noble, R. C. (1998). Transport and transformation of yolk lipids during development of the avian embryo. Progress in Lipid Research, 37, 1-32.

Straw, B.E., Tuovinen, V.K., Bigras-Poulin, M., (1989). Estimation of the cost of pneumonia in swine herds. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 195, 1702 - 1706.

Sulabo R. C., Ju, W. S. and Stein, H. H. (2013). Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 1391–1399.

Surai, P. F. (2002). Selenium in poultry nutrition, reproduction, egg and meat quality and practical applications. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 58, 431-450.

Thorne, P. J., Wiseman, J., Cole, D.A. and Machin, D. H. (2018) Use of diets containing high levels of copra meal for growing/finishing pigs and their supplementation to improve animal performance. Tropical Agriculture, 65, 197–201.

Tuncer, P. B., Kinet, H., Ozdogan, N. and Demiral, O. (2006). Evaluation of some spermatological characteristics in Denizli cocks. Journal of Faculty Veterinary Medicine University of Kafkas 3, 37-42.

Vazquez, J.M.; Roca, J.; Gil, M.A.; Cuello, C.; Parrilla, I.; Vazquez, J.L.; Martínez, E.A. (2008). New developments in low-dose insemination technology. Theriogenology. Vol. 70, No. 8, (November 2008), pp. 1216-1224, DOI: 10.1016.

Vazquez, J.M.; Roca, J.; Gil, M.A.; Cuello, C.; Parrilla, I.; Vazquez, J.L.; Martínez, E.A. (2008). New developments in low-dose insemination technology. Theriogenology. Vol. 70, No. 8, (November 2008), pp. 1216-1224.

Ventela S., Ohta H. and Parvinen M. (2002). Development of the stages of the cycle in mouse seminiferous epithelium after transplantation of green protein labeled spermatogonial stem cells. Biology of Reproduction, 66(5), 1422-1429.

Viring, S.; Einarsson, S. (1981) Sperm distribuition within the genital tract of naturally inseminated gilts. Nordisch Veterinarian Medicine, v.33, p.145-149.

Weber, D.; Bennemann, P.E.; Wentz, I.; Bortolozzo, F.P. (2003). Avaliação do Custo de Doses Inseminantes Produzidas em Centrais de Inseminação Artificial de Suínos em Sistema Fechado. Proceedings of XI Congresso Brasileiro de Veterinários Especialistas emSuínos (ABRAVES), Goiânia - GO, outubro, 2003.

Whittemore, C. T. (1987).Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics. Third Edition, Longman Group Ltd. Essex, England. 559 Pp

Williams, W. W. (1920). Diseases of the bull interfering with reproduction. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 58, 29-41.

Wood roof (1983). LG. Peanuts, processing, products. (ed.) Third edition. AVI Publishing, Connecticut.

Yamamoto, S., Tamate, H. and Itikawa, B. R. (1967) Morphological studies on the sexual maturation in the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japnica) 2. The germ cell types and cellular associations during spermatogenesis. Tohoku Journal of agricultural Research, 18, 27-37.

Zahraddeen, D., Butswat, I. S. R., Kalla, D. J. U., Sir, S. M. and Bukar, M. T. (2005). Effect of frequency of ejaculation on semen characteristics in two breeds of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) raised in a tropical environment. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(4) 217-221.

Zanga J., Chimonyo M., Kanengoni A., Dzama, K. and Mukaratirwa, S. (2003). A Comparison of the Susceptibility of Growing Mukota and LargeWhite Pigs to Infection with Ascarissuum. Veterinary Research Communications 27(8), 653-660

Published
2020-09-24
How to Cite
R. P. Obongekpe. (2020). The Effect of Dietary Protein (Groundnut Cake and Coconut Cake) on the Live Weight Gain, Spermiograms, Gonadal sperm Reserves and Fertility of Boars. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 192-205. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.5.26