Large Marine Ecosystem: Analysis and Approach

  • Arunima
Keywords: Large Marine Ecosystem, Strategic Action Planning, Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, Global Environmental Facility

Abstract

A large marine ecosystem encompasses many resources and these are the areas with better primary productivity. Due to the increase of unsustainable marine practices, ignorance of the well being of marine organisms, and polluting of water bodies, the marine ecosystem requires extra measures. To provide aid to the countries and make a joint effort to protect their marine ecosystems, GEF was established. The work describes the comparative analysis and the process involved in large marine ecosystem management. It sheds light on the global environmental facility mode of operation and the factors required to attain the desired change. The paper focuses on management and diagnostic tools like strategic action planning and transboundary diagnostic analysis and how they are being applied using real-time examples. The measures countries are taking to achieve the desired change and the procedure to obtain financial help from various sources are also underlined.  It augments the need for the large marine ecosystem and discusses various parts of the 5 modules. It discusses how GEF can contribute to the furtherance of the large marine ecosystem and provide guidance to the countries.   

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Human impacts on marine ecosystems GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research. Retrieved 22 October 2019.

Olsen SB, Sutinen JG, Juda L, Hennessey TM, Grigalunas TA. (2006). A Handbook on Governance and Socioeconomics of Large Marine Ecosystems. Kingston, RI: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island. pp 94.

Alexander, L. M. (1993). Large marine ecosystems. Marine Policy, 17(3), 186–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-597X(93)90076-F

Pauly D, Christensen V. 1995. Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature 374:255-257.

Duda, A. M., & Sherman, K. (2002). A new imperative for improving management of large marine ecosystems. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45(11–12), 797–833. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-5691(02)00107-2

Sherman, Kenneth. (2009). Indicators of changing states of large marine ecosystems. Sustaining the World's Large Marine Ecosystems. 13-49.

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R. V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton, P., & van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387(6630), 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1038/387253a0

Sutinen, J. G., Dyer, C. L., Edwards, S. F., Gates, J., Grigalunas, T. A., Hennessey, T., Juda, L., Kitts, A. W., Logan, P. N., Poggie, J. J., Pollard Rountree, B., Steinback, S. R., Thunberg, E. M., Upton, H. F., & Walden, J. B. (2005). A Framework for Monitoring and Assessing Socioeconomics and Governance of Large Marine Ecosystems1 1First published by Sutinen et al. in 2000: NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NE-158 (under contract # ENN F7 00378). In Large Marine Ecosystems (Vol. 13, pp. 27–81). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1570-0461(05)80027-8

Hennessey, L. J., Timothy. (2001). Governance Profiles and the Management of the Uses of Large Marine Ecosystems. Ocean Development & International Law, 32(1), 43–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908320150502195

Sherman K., Aquarone M.-C., Adams S., et al., 2010a. Scope and Objectives of the Global Environment Facility Supported Large Marine Ecosystems Projects. NOAA Large Marine Ecosystem Program Report. NOAA Large Marine Ecosystem Program. Narragansett, RI, USA.

Boisson de Chazournes, L. (2005). The Global Environment Facility (GEF): A Unique and Crucial Institution. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 14(3), 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9388.2005.00441.x

UNIDO/GEF, 2005. UNIDO/GEF Project. Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem. Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis.

Wang, H. (2004). Ecosystem Management and Its Application to Large Marine Ecosystems: Science, Law, and Politics. Ocean Development & International Law, 35(1), 41–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908320490264382

Wang, H. (2004). An Evaluation of the Modular Approach to the Assessment and Management of Large Marine Ecosystems. Ocean Development & International Law, 35(3), 267–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908320490467332

UNDP/GEF, (2007). Transboundary diagnostic analysis for the Yellow Sea LME. UNDP/GEF project: Reducing environmental stress in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem, Ansan, Republic of Korea. pp. 98.

UNDP/GEF, (2007). The Yellow Sea: Analysis of the Environmental Status and Trends. Volume 2: National reports - Republic of Korea. UNDP/GEF project: Reducing environmental stress in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem, Ansan, Republic of Korea. pp. 718.

UNDP/GEF, (2007). The Yellow Sea: Analysis of the environmental status and trends. Volume 1: National reports - China. UNDP/GEF project: "Reducing environmental stress in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem", Ansan, Republic of Korea. pp. 620.

UNDP/GEF, (2007). The Yellow Sea: Analysis of the Environmental Status and Trends. Volume 3: Regional synthesis reports. UNDP/GEF project: Reducing environmental stress in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem, Ansan, Republic of Korea. pp. 408

Officer, C., & Ryther, J. (1980). The Possible Importance of Silicon in Marine Eutrophication. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 3, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps003083

Vasas, V., Lancelot, C., Rousseau, V., & Jordán, F. (2007). Eutrophication and overfishing in temperate nearshore pelagic food webs: A network perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 336, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps336001

McCann, K. S. (2000). The diversity–stability debate. Nature, 405(6783), 228–233. https://doi.org/10.1038/35012234

Kawahara, M., Uye, S., Ohtsu, K., & Iizumi, H. (2006). Unusual population explosion of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) in East Asian waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 307, 161–173. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps307161

Bakun, A., & Weeks, S. J. (2006). Adverse feedback sequences in exploited marine systems: Are deliberate interruptive actions warranted? Fish and Fisheries, 7(4), 316–333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2006.00229.x

Lynam, C. P., Gibbons, M. J., Axelsen, B. E., Sparks, C. A. J., Coetzee, J., Heywood, B. G., & Brierley, A. S. (2006). Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biology, 16(13), R492–R493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.06.018

Daskalov, G. (2002). Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 225, 53–63. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps225053

Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Volume 1 Issues, Proximate and Root Causes, pp 24,26,30 https://www.boblme.org/documentRepository/BOBLME-2012-TDA-Volume_1.pdf

Hossain, M.M. 2003. National Report of Bangladesh. Unpublished report prepared for the BOBLME Programme. The unedited version available at www.boblme.org

Web link: http://www.fao.org/3/x8080e07.htm

Web link: https://fdocuments.net/document/draft-boblme-transboundary-diagnostic-analysis-volume-1-draft-tda-vol1-fordraft.html

Published
2020-09-22
How to Cite
Arunima. (2020). Large Marine Ecosystem: Analysis and Approach. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 156-165. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.5.23