Study toward the Development of Relationship between Ref Gene Expression and Yield Potential of Hevea Clones
Rubber is the third largest plantation crop in Sri Lanka. In 2018, Rubber production was declined from 83.1 million kilograms to 82.6 million kilograms. Development of high yielding clones to the rubber industry is a prime objective of Hevea breeding and selection. Rubber Elongation Factor (Ref) protein mainly helps for the biosynthesis of natural rubber in Hevea brasiliensis. Rubber particles are tightly bound to this Ref protein. Genomic sequence of Ref gene is 1367 bp long. Previous studies found that the positive correlation between Ref gene expression pattern and latex yield. The clones in the group III clone recommendation are needed to upgrade in to group II gradually with their performance. Selected three clones in the group III as RRISL 2006, RRISL Centennial 3 and RRISL Centennial 4 were undertaken to study their Ref gene expression and promoter analysis with latex yield to verify their performance. Quantitative gene expression of Ref gene was done to identify the expression pattern of Ref gene and promoter. Livak method (2-∆∆CT) used to analyze the quantitative gene expression and paired t test was used to identify significant difference between control and treatments. Compared to the control clone RRISL 203, the yields of all other three clones were significantly higher as well as their Ref gene expression was up-regulated differently with 2 to 7 fold difference. Up-regulation of Ref gene in the clone RRISL 2006 is significantly higher with seven fold compared to the control clone RRISL 203. The average yield of RRISL 2006 in the year 2019 was 27.3 g/t/t and average yield of RRISL Centennial 3 was 28.3 g/t/t. But the difference was not significant. In January 2020, where samples were collected, the RRISL 2006 recorded highest 55.77 g/t/t. RRISL Centennial 4 was showed around four fold up-regulation compared to the clone RRISL 203 as well as yield also higher to RRISL 203. The clone RRISL Centennial 3 also followed the same pattern but the fold difference was around 2.5 over the control clone RRISL 203. The results we reproved the positive correlation between Ref gene expression and the high yield. However this relationship was not observed between RRISL Centennial 3 and RRISL Centennial 4, as the clone RRISL Centennial 4 showed higher fold difference over to RRISL Centennial 3 but yield was low. Therefore this relationship is needed to be further analyzed. The copy number of Ref promoter also important to understand the clear relationship between Ref gene expression and yield potential of Hevea clones.
Annual Report of Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka. (2017). Available at: http://www.rrisl.gov.lk/content/files/annualReports/Annual%20Report%202017%20-%20English.pdf
Chow, K.-S., Wan, K.-L., Isa, Mohd. N. M., Bahari, A., Tan, S.-H., Harikrishna, K., & Yeang, H.-Y. (2007). Insights into rubber biosynthesis from transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis latex. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(10), 2429–2440. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erm093
Dennis, M. S., Henzel, W. J., Bell, J., Kohr, W., & Light, D. R. (1989). Amino acid sequence of rubber elongation factor protein associated with rubber particles in Hevea latex. The Journal of biological chemistry, 264(31), 18618–18626.
Han, K.-H., Shin, D. H., Yang, J., Kim, I. J., Oh, S. K., & Chow, K. S. (2000). Genes expressed in the latex of Hevea brasiliensis. Tree Physiology, 20(8), 503–510. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/20.8.503
Hayashi, Y. (2009). Production of natural rubber from Para rubber tree. Plant Biotechnology, 26(1), 67–70. https://doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.26.67
Kadri, K. (2020). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Principle and Applications. In M. L. Nagpal, O.-M. Boldura, C. Baltă, & S. Enany (Eds.), Synthetic Biology—New Interdisciplinary Science. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.86491
K. L. M. Kalpani, S. P. Withange, & I. R. Palihakkara. (2020). Selection of Superior Genotypes at Early Stage of the Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Breeding Cycle. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(4), 146-155. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.4.17
Premasiri, H M & Fernando, Preeni & Kudaligama, K V V. (2017). Spatial Techniques for Assessing Favorable Topographic Conditions for Rubber Plantation. AARS, 17, 9–16. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/852a/25127c95995ff9f6f46dda357578317e8b10.pdf
Liyanage, K. K.. (2018). Journey of the clone rrisl 203 and its important properties. Bulletin of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 53, 8-20.
Liyanage, K. K., & Baddewithana, B. W. A. N. (2015). Phenotypic diversity of Sri Lankan rubber clones at their immature stage. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 95(0), 14. https://doi.org/10.4038/jrrisl.v95i0.1833
Mahendra, R., Attanayka, D., Chandrasekharan, N., Ranathunge, R., & Withanage, S. (2013). Analysis of the Promoter Region of the Rubber Elongation Factor Gene (ref) of Hevea brasiliensis. Proceedings of 12th Agricultural Research Symposium, 16, 20.
Mantello, C. C., Suzuki, F. I., Souza, L. M., Gonçalves, P. S., & Souza, A. P. (2012). Microsatellite marker development for the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis): Characterization and cross-amplification in wild Hevea species. BMC Research Notes, 5(1), 329. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-329
Ministry of Plantation Industries. (2014). Ministry of Plantation Industries ( Vacancies ). 1–95. Available at: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/budget/article28281079.ece/binary/EconomicSurveyVolumeII.pdf
Central Bank Report (2018). National Output, Expenditure and Income 2.1. Available at: https://www.cbsl.gov.lk/sites/default/files/cbslweb_documents/publications/annual_report/2018/en/6_Chapter_02.pdf
Nagahawatta, D.P., Attanayake, D.P.S.T.G, Dissanayaka, D.M.S, Withanage, S.P. (2017). Analysis and cloning of the coding region of Rubber Elongation Factor Gene ( ref ) related sequences from Hevea brasiliensis and Hevea spruceana. 21-25.
Perumal, V., Geetha, N., Palanivel, S., & Thulaseedharan, A. (2013). Natural rubber producing plants : An overview. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(12), pp. 1297-1310
Priya, P., Venkatachalam, P., & Thulaseedharan, A. (2006). Molecular cloning and characterization of the rubber elongation factor gene and its promoter sequence from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis): A gene involved in rubber biosynthesis. Plant Science, 171(4), 470–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2006.05.009
Priya, P., Venkatachalam, P., & Thulaseedharan, A. (2007). Differential expression pattern of rubber elongation factor (REF) mRNA transcripts from high and low yielding clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Plant Cell Reports, 26(10), 1833–1838. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-007-0402-z
Priyadarshan, P. M., Gonçalves, P. S., & Omokhafe, K. O. (2009). Breeding Hevea Rubber. In S. M. Jain & P. M. Priyadarshan (Eds.), Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Tropical Species (pp. 469–522). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71201-7_13
A. Ranasinghe, I. R. Palihakkara, & A. Nugawela. (2020). Yield Variation during the Period (April to July) 2017 in RRIC 121 & BPM 24 Rubber Clones (Hevea brasiliensis) Grown in WL3 Agro Ecological Zone of Sri Lanka. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(3), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.7.3.5
Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka (2013). Clone Recommendation. Available at: http://www.rrisl.gov.lk/content/files/downDoc/16.%20Clone%20Recommendation.pdf
Samindi, H. A. N. R. (2018). Analysis of the promoter region of Rubber Elongation Factor (REF) of Hevea brasiliensis. muell.arg.cv RRIC 121.
Schnell, R. J., & Priyadarshan, P. M. (Eds.). (2012). Genomics of Tree Crops. Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0920-5
Seneviratne, P & Karunasekera, K & Liyanage, K. K. & Rupatunge, K & Gamage, A & Peiris, H. (2009). The success story down the ages: the role of rubber breeders in sri lanka. Bulletin of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka. 50. 1-5.
Suganthan. A., Attanayaka. D.P.S.T.G., Samarajeewa. D.A.D.S. and Chandrasekharan. N.V. (2011). Variations in ref Gene Expression and its Promoter Sequence in High and Low Yielding Clones of Hevea brasiliensis. In proceedings of the 11th Agricultural Research Symposium, 20th-21st of September 2011. Makandura, Wayamba University Sri Lanka, 26-30.
Tang, C., Yang, M., Fang, Y., Luo, Y., Gao, S., Xiao, X., An, Z., Zhou, B., Zhang, B., Tan, X., Yeang, H.-Y., Qin, Y., Yang, J., Lin, Q., Mei, H., Montoro, P., Long, X., Qi, J., Hua, Y., … Huang, H. (2016). The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation. Nature Plants, 2(6), 16073. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2016.73
Waduge, T.D. , Attanayake, D.P.S.T.G., Edirisinghe, N.M.H., Chandrasekharan, N.V. (2016). Cloning and characterization of the proximal promoter sequence of Rubber Elongation Factor ( ref ) Gene of Hevea brasiliensis for expression studies. 144–148.
Withanage, S. P., Peiris, H. P., Kariyawasam, L. S., Kumara, I. D. M. J. S., Gunasekara, T. M. S. K., & Baddewithana, B. W. A. N. (2017). Use of yield-yield correlation for early selection of newly developed Hevea genotypes. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 94(0), 54. https://doi.org/10.4038/jrrisl.v94i0.1825
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.