Study the Effect of Antioxidants and Oxidative Products and Their Genetic Effect on Methionine Synthase in People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Basim M. Ali
  • Proff. Iqbal J. Alassadi
  • A. Proff. Sameerah Ahmed Zearah
Keywords: Autism, GSH, MDA, Methionine Synthase


Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication by restricted repetitive behavior, Blood samples were taken for 60 people with autism and 30 healthy people as a control group. Both groups ranged age from 3 to 8 years .The laboratory and genetic analysis, (GSH & MDA) analysis were performed by ELISA technique, while Vit. D was performed by I-chroma II technique .The genetic aspect; it has been using the DNA separation kit then used PCR device, after that using nanoscope analyzer to determine the concentration of DNA extracted after the special primers were used to determine the presence of genetic defect. The results were a significant decrease in level of (GSH & Vit.D), a significant increase in level of (MDA), the genetic part, allel has been identified suffering from a significant change of methionine synthase where there is a significant relationship between this protein and autism disorder.


Download data is not yet available.


American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5, (5th Edition), pp. 501-504.

Kit Sing Au, Tina O. Findley, and Hope Northrup. (2017). Finding the genetic mechanisms of folate deficiency and neural tube defects—Leaving no stone unturned. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 173(11), 3042-3057.

A.L Basim M. Ali. (2016). Study effect of blood glucose level on renal failure in peoples suffering from diabetes. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(5), 2033-2038.

Lawrence W. Brown. (2018). Tourette Syndrome. In: Complex Disorders in Pediatric Psychiatry: A Clinician's Guide. USA: Elsevier. pp. 37.‏

Available at:

Bysani M, Perfilyev A, de Mello VD, Rönn T, Nilsson E, Pihlajamäki J, Ling C. (2017). Epigenetic alterations in blood mirror age-associated DNA methylation and gene expression changes in human liver. Epigenomics, 9(2), 105-122. doi: 10.2217/epi-2016-0087

Maria Carmen Carrascosa-Romero and Carlos De Cabo-De La Vega. (2017). The genetic and epigenetic basis involved in the pathophysiology of ASD. In: therapeutic implications. IntechOpen, pp. 115-182.‏

Ko Ling Chan, Camilla K. M. Lo, Frederick K. Ho and Patrick Ip. (2019). Disability-specific associations with child health and functioning. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 1024. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16061024‏

Wei-Hsiang Changa, Yuh-Shyan Tsai, Jia-Yu Wang, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Wen-Horng Yang, Ching-Chang Lee,(2019). Sex hormones and oxidative stress mediated phthalate-induced effects in prostatic enlargement. Environment International, 126, 184-192.‏

doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.006

Ved Chauhan,Abha Chauhan, Ira L Cohen, W.Ted Brown, Ashfaq Sheikh. (2004). Alteration in amino-glycerophospholipids levels in the plasma of children with autism: A potential biochemical diagnostic marker. Life Sciences, 74(13), 1635-1643.

doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.08.024

Hui Chen, Zhiying Xu, Bin Yang, Xiaoli Zhou & Hongfang Kong. (2018). RASGRF1 hypermethylation, a putative biomarker of colorectal cancer. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 48(1), 3-10.

María Elena González-Fraguela, Mei-Li Diaz Hung, Hector Vera,Carlos Maragoto, Elena Noris, Lisette Blanco, Reynaldo Galvizu & Maria Robinson. (2013). Oxidative stress markers in children with autism spectrum disorders. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 3(2), 307-317.

Eugeny Yu Gusev & Natalia Zotova. (2019). Cellular Stress and General Pathological Processes. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 25(3), 251-297.

Obed A. Gyamfi, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Sari B. Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Gary A. Rockwood & Brian A. Logue. (2019). Metabolism of cyanide by glutathione to produce the novel cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-oxoaminoethanoic acid. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 32(4), 718-726.

Hansen, Stefan N., Diana E. Schendel & Erik T. Parner. (2014).Explaining the increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: the proportion attributable to changes in reporting practices. JAMA Pediatr, 169(1), 56-62. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1893.

Martha R. Herbert. (2009). Autism: The centrality of active pathophysiology and the shift from static to chronic dynamic encephalopathy. (1st ed.). Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Abnormalities. pp. 343-387.

Herrmann M, Farrell CL, Pusceddu I, Fabregat-Cabello N, Cavalier E. (2017). Assessment of vitamin D status - a changing landscape. Clin Chem Lab Med., 55(1), 3-26. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2016-0264‏

Michael F Holick. (2004). Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(6), 1678S–1688S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1678S

Hudler Petra. (2018). Outlook on Epigenetic Therapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Gastric Cancer. Current Cancer Drug Targets, 18(1), 65-88.

doi: 10.2174/1568009617666170203163745.

Kerley CP, Elnazir B, Greally P & Coghlan D. (2018). Blunted serum 25 (OH) D responses to vitamin D3 supplementation in children with autism. Nutritional neuroscience, 10, 1-6.

doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2018.1529342

Kheradmand A, Alirezaei M, Asadian P, Rafiei Alavi E & Joorabi S. (2009). Antioxidant enzyme activity and MDA level in the rat testis following chronic administration of ghrelin. Andrologia, 41(6), 335-40.

doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.00932.x

LAM, Bick-har. (2019). Understanding Social Support. In: Social Support, Well-being, and Teacher Development. SINGAPORE: Springer. pp. 29-83.

Landa RJ. (2008). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life .Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 4(3), 138-47. doi: 10.1038/ncpneuro0731

Sergio López-Doval, Ramón Salgado-Freiría & Anunciación Lafuente. (2016). The expression of several reproductive hormone receptors can be modified by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in adult male rats. Chemosphere, 155, 488-497.

doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.081

Joseph L. Mathew & Arun Sharma. (2019). Is Autism Spectrum Disorder in Early Childhood Related to Antenatal Exposure to Air Pollution? Indian Pediatrics, 56(1), 63–66. doi: 10.1007/s13312-019-1470-1

Mazahery H, Camargo CA Jr, Conlon C, Beck KL, Kruger MC & von Hurst PR. (2016).Vitamin D and autism spectrum disorder: a literature review. Nutrients, 8(4), 236. doi: 10.3390/nu8040236

Padmanabhan N, Menelaou K, Gao J, Anderson A, Blake GET, Li T, Daw BN & Watson ED. (2018). Abnormal folate metabolism causes age-, sex- and parent-of-origin-specific haematological defects in mice. The Journal of physiology, 596(18), 4341-4360.

doi: 10.1113/JP276419.‏

Rahbar MH, Samms-Vaughan M, Lee M, Christian MA, Bressler J, Hessabi M, Grove ML, Shakespeare-Pellington S, Desai CC, Reece JA, Loveland KA, Beecher C, McLaughlin W & Boerwinkle E. (2018).Interaction between manganese and GSTP1 in relation to autism spectrum disorder while controlling for exposure to mixture of lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 55, 50-63. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2018.08.003

Patrick Peretti‐Watel, Jeremy K. Ward, Chantal Vergelys, Aurélie Bocquier, Jocelyn Raude & Pierre Verger. (2019). ‘I Think I Made The Right Decision … I Hope I'm Not Wrong’. Vaccine hesitancy, commitment and trust among parents of young children. Sociology of Health & Illness, 41(49), 1192–1206.

doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.12902

Maureen Redza-Dutordoir & Diana A. Averill-Bates. (2016). Activation of apoptosis signalling pathways by reactive oxygen species. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1863(12), 2977-2992.

Tomas Rozbroja, Anthony Lyonsa & Jayne Lucke. (2019). Psychosocial and demographic characteristics relating to vaccine attitudes in Australia. Patient Education and Counseling, 102(1), 172-179.

doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2018.08.027‏

Ali Abid Abojassim. (2016). Determination of some heavy metals in the blood and milk of nursing mothers: a comparative study betweenwasit and najaf provinces. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, 9(3), 405.

Amene Saghazadeh, Narges Ahangari, Kasra Hendi, Fatemeh Saleh & Nima Rezaei. (2017). Status of essential elements in autism spectrum disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 28(7), 783-809.

doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2017-0015

Scott D. Tomchek, Lauren M. Little, John Myers & Winnie Dunn. (2018). Sensory subtypes in preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(6), 2139–2147. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3468-2

Zach Walsh, Raul Gonzalez, Kim Crosby, Michelle St. Pierre, Chris Carroll & Marcel Bonn-Miller. (2017). Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 15-29. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.002

Zavadakova P, Fowler B, Zeman J, Suormala T, Pristoupilová K, Kozich V & Zavad'áková P. (2002). CblE type of homocystinuria due to methionine synthase reductase deficiency: clinical and molecular studies and prenatal diagnosis in two families. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 25(6), 461-76.

Zhu H, Wicker NJ, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Hendricks K, Suarez L, Canfield M & Finnell RH. (2003). Homocysteine remethylation enzyme polymorphisms and increased risks for neural tube defects. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 78(3), 216-21.

How to Cite
Basim M. Ali, Proff. Iqbal J. Alassadi, & A. Proff. Sameerah Ahmed Zearah. (2019). Study the Effect of Antioxidants and Oxidative Products and Their Genetic Effect on Methionine Synthase in People with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 6(6), 4-10.